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'''Elokuun kansannousu''' ({{k-ka|აგვისტოს აჯანყება|AgvistosAgvist'os adžanq'eba}}) oli epäonnistunut kansannousu [[Neuvostoliitto|neuvostohallintoa]] vastaan [[Georgian sosialistinen neuvostotasavalta|Georgian SNT]]:ssä elokuun lopusta syyskuun alkuun vuonna [[1924]].
 
Kansannousun tarkoituksena oli palauttaa Georgian itsenäisyys Neuvostoliitosta. Sitä johti [[Georgian itsenäisyyden komitea]], ryhmä neuvostovastaisia poliittisia järjestöjä [[Georgian sosiaalidemokraattinen puolue|Georgian menševikkipuolueen]] ajamana. Se oli kolmivuotisen [[bolševikit|bolševikkihallinnon]] vastaisen kamppailun huipentuma. Bolševikit olivat ottaneet vallan käsiinsä sen jälkeen, kun [[Neuvosto-Venäjä]]n [[Puna-armeijan hyökkäys Georgiaan|puna-armeija oli hyökännyt]] [[Georgian demokraattinen tasavalta|Georgian demokraattiseen tasavaltaan]] vuoden 1921 alussa. Puna-armeija ja [[Tšeka]] kukistivat kansannousun, mitä seurasi aalto sortotoimia, joissa useita tuhansia georgialaisia tapettiin. Elokuun kansannoususta tuli yksi viimeisistä varhaista neuvostohallitusta vastaan suunnatuista kapinoista, ja sen epäonnistuminen merkitsi kommunistisen hallinnon lopullista perustamista Georgiaan.
 
== Syyt ==
Georgia julistettiin neuvostotasavallaksi 25. helmikuuta 1921, kun puna-armeija otti haltuunsa Georgian pääkaupungin Tbilisin ja pakotti maan menševikkihallituksen maanpakoon.
 
Georgialaisten uskollisuutta uudelle hallinnolle oli kuitenkin vaikea saada. Ensimmäisen kolmen hallintovuotensa aikana bolševikit onnistuivat värväämään puolueeseensa alle 10&nbsp;000 jäsentä, kun taas menševikit olivat huomattavasti suositumpia. Heidän järjestöissään oli yli 60&nbsp;000 jäsentä. Vuosien 1918&ndash;1921 itsenäisyydellä oli ratkaiseva rooli Georgian kansallisessa heräämisessä, vaikka se jäikin lyhytaikaiseksi, ja menševikit saivat sen kuluessa taakseen kansan laajamittaisen tuen. Pakkoliitos Neuvostoliittoon ja katkeruus sitä seuranneista rajojen uudelleenjärjestelyistä, joissa Georgia menetti tuntuvia osia aiemmista alueistaan [[Turkki|Turkille]], [[Azerbaidžanin SNT]]:lle, [[Armenian SNT]]:lle ja Venäjälle, lisäsivät uusien vallanpitäjien epäsuosiota. Uudella Georgian ''[[Revkom]]in'' (vallankumouskomitean) johtamalla bolševikkihallinnolla olikin niin vähän tukea georgialaisten keskuudessa, että se joutui kansannousun ja sisällissodan uhkaamaksi.<ref>Knight, s. 26.</ref> Bolševikeilla oli vain rajoitetut siteet Georgian talonpoikaisvestöön, joka vastusti ankarasti kollektivisointia, ja oli tyytymätön maapulaan ja muihin talousvaikeuksiin. Tilannetta pahensivat edelleen nälänhätä monilla Georgian alueilla ja kesän 1921 [[kolera]]epidemia, joka vaati tuhansia uhreja. Puute ruoasta ja lääkäripalvelujen toimimattomuus johtivat korkeaan kuolleisuuteen. Uhrien joukossa oli muun muassa [[Georgian patriarkka]] [[Leonide]].<ref>Lang, s. 238.</ref> Georgian politisoitunut työväenluokka, joka kärsi vaikeista talousongelmista, vastusti myös uutta hallintoa, kuten kansallinen älymystö ja aatelisto, jotka olivat vannoneet uskollisuuttaan menševikkihallinnolle. Viivästynyt siirtyminen Revkomin hallinnosta neuvostojärjestelmään, työläisten järjestöjen ja ammattiyhdistysten alistaminen bolševikkien puoluekomiteoille ja Moskovan keskushallintoa suosiva politiikka loivat tyytymättömyyttä jopa kommunisteihin kaikkein myötämielisimmin suhtautuvan Tbilisin monietnisen työläisväestön keskuuteen.<ref>Ibid.</ref>
 
Julkinen tyytymättömyys Georgian yhteiskunnassa heijastui epäsuorasti myös bolševikkien katkeraan, sisäiseen valtataisteluun, jossa kiisteltiin tavasta saada aikaan sosiaalinen ja poliittinen muutos Georgiassa. Kovan linjan edustajat, joita johtivat Venäjän kommunistisen puolueen [[Transkaukasia]]n alueellisen komitean (''Zaikkraikom'') pää [[Sergo Ordžonikidze]] ja Venäjän SFNT:n kansallisuuksien kansankomissari [[Josif Stalin]], aloittivat sarjan Georgian itsehallinnon viimeisten rippeiden tuhoamiseen tähtääviä toimia. Heitä vastusti ryhmä georgialaisia bolševikkeja, joita johtivat [[Pilip Makharadze]] ja [[Budu Mdivani]] ja joita heidän vasustajansa kutsuivat "kansallisiksi deviationisteiksi". He halusivat edistää suvaitsevaisuutta menševikkioppositiota kohtaan, maltillista suhtautumista maareformiin, ja ennen kaikkea he vaativat suurempaa autonomiaa Moskovalta ja vastustivat jääräpäisesti Stalinin hanketta, joka olisi yhdistänyt kolme Transkaukasian tasavaltaa taloudellisesti ja poliittisesti. Kriisi tunnettiin "[[Georgian juttu]]na", kesti vuoden 1922 ajan ja päättyi kovan linjan edustajien voittoon. Sen tuloksena Georgia pakotettiin yhdistymään Armenan ja Azerbaidžanin neuvostotasavaltojen kanssa [[Transkaukasian sosialistinen federatiivinen neuvostotasavalta|Transkaukasian SFNT]]:ksi, mikä merkitsi vakavaa iskua georgialaisten kansallisylpeydelle. "Kansallisten deviationistien" hävittyä bolševikkien politiikka muuttui aggressiivisemmaksi: kaikkea oppositiota vastaan kohdistettiin rankkoja sortotoimia, ja edelleen laillisten puolueiden täytyi ilmoittaa hajottamisestaan ja julistaa virallista uskollisuuttaan neuvostoviranomaisille huhtikuun 1922 ja lokakuun 1923 välillä. Puolueet, jotka jatkoivat toimintaansa, vetäytyivät maanalaisiksi järjestöiksi.<ref>Nodia ja Scholtbach, s. 93</ref> [[Georgian patriarkaatt|Georgian ortodoksista kirkkoa]] sorrettiin myös: yli 1&nbsp;500 luostaria ja kirkkoa suljettiin tai tuhottiin<ref>Surguladze, s. 253.</ref> ja useita kirkon työtekijöitä vangittiin, heidän joukossaan katolikos-patriarkka [[Ambrosi]], joka pidätettiin ja tuotiin oikeuden eteen. Hän oli lähettänyt vuoden 1922 [[Genovan konferenssi]]lle protestikirjeen, jossa hän kuvaili Georgian oloja puna-armeijan invaasion jälkeen, ja pyysi "apua sivistyneeltä maailmalta".<ref>Lang, s. 241.</ref>
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== Preparation ==
[[Image:Kakutsa Cholokashvili.jpg|thumb|Colonel [[Kakutsa Cholokashvili]], one of the leaders of anti-Soviet guerrilla movement, is venerated as [[national hero]] of Georgia.]]
In the course of the Red Army invasion, part of the defeated Georgian forces withdrew into the mountains and organized themselves into a number of small partisan groups. From 1921 to 1922, guerrilla warfare broke out in several regions of Georgia. In May 1921, the highlanders of [[Svaneti]], northwestern Georgia, led by Mosestro Dadeshkeliani, Nestor Gardapkhadze and Bidzina Pirveli, [[1921 Svanetian Uprising|rose in rebellion]]. After a resistance of six months, the revolt was put down and its leaders were purged. In early 1922, [[Kakhet-Khevsureti Rebellion|the rebellion against the Soviet rule]] broke out in [[Khevsureti]], another mountainous district, but in northeast Georgia. Soviet troops using aviation managed to stop this rebellion from spreading, but could not crush it completely. Colonel [[Kakutsa Cholokashvili]], who had led the revolt, managed to escape to the neighboring [[Chechnya]], whence he made several inroads into Georgia, preventing the Bolsheviks from gaining a foothold in the eastern Georgian mountains. The local [[militsiya]] chief [[Levan Razikashvili]] was arrested and later shot for having sympathized with the rebellion.
 
Still, these revolts were local and spontaneous and did not attract large masses. Within the period of 1922-1923, 33 of 57 active guerrilla detachments disintegrated or surrendered to the Soviet authorities. The deplorable situation of the anti-Soviet opposition forced all major underground parties to seek closer cooperation. The negotiations proceeded slowly, however, and it was not until mid-1922 that the Mensheviks reached an agreement with their formal rivals – the National Democrats and some other political groups – to coordinate their efforts against the Bolsheviks. Soon the opposition parties congregated into an underground movement known as the [[Committee for the Independence of Georgia]] or the "Damkom" (short for ''damoukideblobis komiteti'', Committee for Independence). Sponsored by the [[Government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia-in-exile|government of Georgia-in-exile]], the Damkom began preparations for a general uprising in Georgia. The organization set up a "Military Center" and appointed General Spiridon Chavchavadze the commander-in-chief of all rebel forces. Several members of the former Menshevik government returned clandestinely from exile, including the former Minister of Agriculture, [[Noe Khomeriki]], as well as the former commander of the National Guard, [[Valiko Jugheli]]. The organizers, encouraged by the Georgian emigrants in Europe, had still more expectations that the Western powers intended to help. They also hoped that the Georgian revolt would further other Caucasian peoples to rise in arms, but the secret negotiations with Armenian and Azeri nationalists yielded no results and even more promising talks with the [[Muslim]] Chechen leader, [[Ali Mitayev]], were finally aborted due to mass arrests and repressions in [[Northern Caucasus]].
The Georgian branch of the Soviet secret police, [[Cheka]],<ref>a large number of whose members came from the [[11th Red Army]], a conqueror of Georgia, which had been disbanded in June 1921. Knight, p. 30.</ref> with recently appointed Deputy Chief [[Lavrentiy Beria]] playing a leading role, managed to penetrate the organization and carried out mass arrests. A prominent Menshevik activist, David Sagirashvili, was arrested and then deported to Germany in October 1922 along with sixty-two other Mensheviks.<ref>Knight, p. 237.</ref> A heavy loss was sustained in February 1923 by the Georgian opposition, when fifteen members of the military center were arrested. Among them were the principal leaders of the resistance movement, Generals [[Kote Abkhazi]], Alexander Andronikashvili and Vardan Tsulukidze; they were executed on May 19 1923.<ref>Lang, p. 241.</ref> In March 1923 the Cheka discovered an underground Menshevik printshop and arrested several oppositionists.<ref>Knight, p. 237.</ref> The Menshevik leaders Noe Khomeriki, [[Benia Chkhikvishvili]], and Valiko Jugheli too fell in the hands of the Cheka on November 9 1923, July 25 1924, and August 6 1924, respectively.
 
Under these circumstances, some Georgians doubted whether the uprising could be successful. The captured rebel leader, Jugheli, urged Cheka officials to allow him to inform his comrades that their plans had been discovered and advise them to abandon their proposed revolt, but the Cheka refused.<ref>Knight, p. 32</ref> Jugheli’s message still reached the rebels, but the conspirators decided that this might have been a Cheka provocation and went ahead with plans for the uprising.
 
There are many indications that the Soviet intelligence had been, at a certain level, implicated in provoking the uprising. The Cheka, employing secret agents in local socialist circles, were well informed of the conspiracy and popular dissatisfaction of the Bolshevik rule. Instructed by Stalin and Ordzhonikidze, Beria and his superior, Kvantaliani, actually encouraged the rebellion so they would have a pretext for eliminating all political opposition and avenging personal scores with their former rivals in Georgia.<ref>Knight, p. 32; Souvarine, p. 372.</ref>
 
== Outbreak and reaction ==
[[Image:Kote Andronikashvili.jpg|thumb|Prince Kote Andronikashvili, chairman of the Damkom (1923-4)]]
On August 18, 1924, the Damkom laid plans for a general insurrection for 2.00 [[ante meridiem|am]] August 29. The plan of the simultaneous uprising miscarried, however, and, through some misunderstanding, the mining town of [[Chiatura]], western Georgia, rose in rebellion a day earlier, on August 28. This enabled the Soviet government to timely put all available forces in the region on alert. Yet, at first the insurgents achieved considerable success and formed an Interim Government of Georgia chaired by Prince Giorgi Tsereteli. The uprising quickly spread to neighboring areas and a large portion of western Georgia and several districts in eastern Georgia wrested out of the Soviet control.
 
The success of the uprising was short-lived, however. Although the insurrection went further than the Cheka had anticipated, the reaction of the Soviet authorities was prompt. Stalin dissipated any doubt in Moscow of the significance of the disorders in Georgia by the one word: "Kronstadt", referring to the [[Kronstadt rebellion]], a large scale though unsuccessful mutiny by Soviet sailors in 1921. Additional Red Army troops under the overall command of [[Semyon Pugachev]] were promptly sent in and Georgia’s coastline was blockaded to prevent a landing of Georgian émigré groups. Detachments of the Red Army and Cheka attacked the first insurgent towns in western Georgia – Chiatura, [[Senaki]] and [[Abasha]] – as early as August 29 and managed to force the rebels into forests and mountains by August 30. The Red Army forces employed artillery and aviation to fight the guerrillas who still continued to offer resistance, especially in the province of [[Guria]], a home region to many Georgian Menshevik leaders and thus overwhelmingly disloyal to the Bolshevik rule. Tiflis, [[Batumi]] and some larger towns, where the Bolsheviks enjoyed more authority, remained quite as did [[Abkhazia]] and most of the territories compactly settled by ethnic minorities.<ref>Suny, p. 223</ref>
 
Following the setback suffered by the insurgents in the west, the epicenter of the revolt now shifted into eastern Georgia, where, on August 29, a large rebel force under Colonel Cholokashvili assaulted the Red Army barracks in [[Manglisi]], on southwestern approaches of Tiflis, but was driven back by the Soviet troops which had heavily fortified all strategic positions in and around the capital. Reinforcements failed and Cholokashvili’s forces were left isolated, forcing them to retreat eastward into the [[Kakheti]] province. On September 3, Cholokashvili made the last desperate attempt to turn a tide of the rebellion and took the town of [[Dusheti]] in a surprise attack. However, he could not hold off a Red Army counter-offensive and withdrew into mountains. The suppression of the rebellion was accompanied by a full scale outbreak of the [[Red Terror]], "unprecedented even in the most tragic moments of the revolution" as the French author [[Boris Souvarine]] puts it.<ref> Souvarine, p. 372.</ref> The scattered guerrilla resistance continued for several weeks, but by mid-September most of the main rebel groups had been destroyed.
 
On September 4, the Cheka discovered the rebels’ chief headquarters at the [[Shio-Mgvime Monastery]] near the town of [[Mtskheta]], and arrested Prince Andronikashvili, the Damkom chairman, and his associates Javakhishvili, Ishkhneli, Jinoria, and Bochorishvili. On the same day, Beria met with the arrested oppositionists in Tiflis, and proposed to issue a declaration urging the partisans to put down their arms. The committee members, tied up and facing death themselves, accepted the proposal on the condition that an order to stop mass executions be given immediately. Beria agreed and the rebels signed the declaration in order to put an end to the bloodshed.<ref>Knight, p. 33.</ref>
 
The persecutions did not end, however. In violation of the promise made by Beria to the arrested opposition leaders, mass arrests and executions continued. The political guidance of the anti-revolt operations was effected by the [[State Political Directorate|GPU]] chief in Georgia, [[Solomon Mogilevsky]],<ref>Mogilevsky was killed in a plane crash on March 22 1925. There has always been a strong suspicion that a young Georgian airman who was piloting the plane crashed deliberately, killing himself, Mogilevsky and two other high-ranking officials, who had been involved in the suppression of the August Uprising. Lang, p. 243.</ref> and the repressions were largely supported by the Transcaucasian Central Committee.<ref>"Mikhail Kakhiani, a member of the Georgian Central Committee, made a speech shortly after the revolt in which he congratulated the Cheka for "acting splendidly" by quelling the rising so precipitously. He also stated: "Let everyone remember that the Soviet regime deals cruelly and mercilessly with those who are considered to be organizers of the insurrection… If we had not shot them we would have committed a great crime against the Georgian workers." Knight, p, 34.</ref> Stalin himself is quoted to have vowed that "all of Georgia must be plowed under".<ref>Meyer (2001)</ref>
 
In a series of raids, the Red Army and Cheka detachments killed thousands of civilians, exterminating entire families including women and children.<ref>Knight, p. 33; Lang, p. 243.</ref> Mass executions took place in prisons,<ref>Colonel Cholokashvili’s daughter, Tsitsna, who was arrested despite her minority, later "described one incident at the Telavi prison during 1924, when a young Chekist was suddenly confronted with his father, who was sentenced to be executed along with a whole group in one night. When ordered to shoot his own father, the young man shot his two superiors. This led to an all-night "blood orgy" in which hundreds of prisoners were massacred. "The streets were red with blood," recalled Cholokashvili." Knight, p. 34.</ref> where people were killed without trial, including even those in prison at the time of the rebellion.<ref>Rummel, p. 68.</ref> Hundreds of arrested were shot directly in good wagons, so that the dead bodies could be removed faster, a new and effective technical invention authored by the Cheka officer Talakhadze.<ref>Surguladze, p. 255.</ref>
 
The exact number of casualties and the victims of the purges remains unknown. Approximately 3,000 died in fighting.<ref>Cohen, p. 77</ref> The number of those who were executed during the uprising or in its immediate aftermath amounted to 7,000-10,000<ref>Pethybridge, p. 256; Lang, p. 243.</ref> or even more. According to the most recent accounts included also in ''[[The Black Book of Communism]]'' ([[Harvard University Press]], 1999), 12,578 people were put to death from August 29 to September 5, 1924. About 20,000 people were deported to [[Siberia]] and [[Central Asia]]n deserts.<ref>Ibid.</ref>
 
== Aftermath ==
[[Image:Lavrenti Beria.jpg|thumb|The young Soviet security officer [[Lavrentiy Beria]] rose to prominence due to his effective and ruthless action during the August Uprising.]]
Reports of the extent of the repressions caused an outcry among socialists abroad. Leaders of the [[Second International]] sent a resolution to the [[League of Nations]] condemning the Soviet government, but did not achieve any substantial results. [[Clara Zetkin]], a notable [[Germany|German]] Social Democrat, attempted to counteract the negative publicity, visited Tiflis and then wrote a leaflet on Georgia, in which she claimed that only 320 persons had been shot.<ref>Knight, p. 237.</ref> Nonetheless the public outcry resulted in unpleasant repercussions for the central government in Moscow, prompting the [[Politburo]] to set up a special commission, led by Ordzhonikidze, to investigate the causes of the uprising and the Cheka activities during its elimination. In October 1924, following the issuance of the commission’s report, some members of the Georgian Cheka were purged as “unreliable elements” who were presumably offered up as scapegoats for the atrocities.<ref>Knight, p. 34.</ref> Ordzhonikidze himself admitted before a meeting of the Central Committee in Moscow in October 1924 that "perhaps we did go a little far, but we couldn't help ourselves.” On October 7 1924, the Soviet administration ([[Sovnarkom]], "Council of People's Commissars") of Georgia declared an amnesty to all participants of the revolt who would surrender voluntarily. In early March 1925 the [[President of the Soviet Union|Chairman of the All-Union Executive Committee]], [[Mikhail Kalinin]], arrived in Georgia and called for the amnesty of the participants of the August 1924 insurrection, and for the suspension of religious persecutions. As a result, the Cheka grip in Georgia was relatively eased (for example, Catholicos Patriarch Ambrose and the members of the Patriarchal Council were released), military pacification was completed and an appearance of normality returned to the country, but Georgia had suffered a shock from which he was never able to completely recover. The uprising proved to be a last armed effort of Georgians to oust the Bolshevik regime and regain their independence.<ref>Lang, p. 243</ref> The most active pro-independence part of the Georgian society, nobility, military officers and intellectual elites were virtually exterminated, suppressing any serious resistance to the Soviet rule for several decades to come. Only a few survivors such as Cholokashvili, Lashkarashvili and some of their associates managed to escape abroad. The Georgian émigré Irakly Tsereteli considered the event disastrous both for the future of social democracy and of Georgia.<ref>Pethybridge, p. 256; Surguladze, p. 257.</ref>
 
The uprising was also exploited as the pretext for disrupting the [[Tbilisi State University|Tiflis University]] which was seen by the Bolsheviks as a shelter of Georgian nationalism. Despite the fact that several leading academics, who sympathized with or even participated in the anti-Soviet movement, eventually distanced themselves from the idea of an armed revolt and even denounced it in a special statement, the university was purged of unreliable elements and placed under the complete control of the Communist Party. Substantial changes were made in its structure, curriculum, and personnel, including the dismissal of the Rector, a noted historian [[Ivane Javakhishvili]].<ref>Surguladze, p. 257; Lang, p. 245</ref>
 
On the other hand, the events in Georgia demonstrated the necessity for greater concessions to the peasants; Stalin declared that an August 1924 uprising in Georgia was sparked by dissatisfaction among the peasants and called the party to conciliate them. He admitted that "what has happened in Georgia may happen throughout Russia, unless we make a complete change in our attitude to the peasantry" and placed the responsibility for the errors committed on subordinate officials. [[Vyacheslav Molotov]], an influential member of the Politburo, for his part declared: "Georgia provides a startling example of the breach between the Party and the mass of the peasantry in the country."<ref>Souvarine, p. 373</ref> As a result, the Communist Party of Georgia chose, for the time being, to use peaceful persuasion rather than armed coercion to extend their influence over the peasant masses, and to moderate the attempts to enforce collectivization.<ref>Lang, p. 245.</ref> The extension of the radical land reform and the relative freedom granted peasants reduced hostility to the new regime.<ref>Suny, p. 236.</ref> Although the last attributes of Georgia’s political and economic sovereignty, which both the Mensheviks and the "national Communists" had fought to preserve, had been eliminated, the final victory of the Soviet power in Georgia was accompanied by moderate economic growth, that ensured relative stability in the country. Another important factor in lessening opposition to the Bolsheviks, particularly from the [[intelligentsia]], was the policy of "[[Korenizatsiya|nativization]]" persuaded by the Soviet government in the 1920s; Georgian art, language, and learning were promoted; the spread of literacy was sponsored and the role of ethnic Georgians in administrative and cultural institutions enhanced.<ref>Ibid.</ref>
 
== Assessment ==
Under the Soviet Union, the August Uprising remained a taboo theme and was hardly mentioned at all, if not in its ideological content. Using its control over education and the media, the Soviet propaganda machine denounced the Georgian rebellion as a "bloody adventure initiated by the Mensheviks and other reactionary forces who managed to implicate a small and undereducated part of the population in it."<ref>გ. ჯანგველაძე (G. Jangveladze), "მენშევიზმი" (''Menshevism''). ქართული საბჭოთა ენციკლოპედია, ტომი 6 (''Georgian Soviet Encyclopedia, vol. 6''), Tbilisi: 1983.</ref> With a new tide of independence movement sweeping throughout Georgia in the late 1980s, the anti-Soviet fighters of 1924, particularly, the leading partisan officer [[Kakutsa Cholokashvili]], emerged as a major symbol of Georgian patriotism and national resistance to the Soviet rule. The process of legal [[Rehabilitation (Soviet)|"rehabilitation"]] (exoneration) of the victims of the 1920s repressions began under [[Gorbachev]]’s policy of [[Glasnost]] ("publicity") and was completed in the May 25 1992 decree issued by the [[State Council of the Republic of Georgia]] chaired by [[Eduard Shevardnadze]].<ref>{{ru icon}} {{cite web | last = The [[Memorial (society)|Memorial]] | first = | title = Декрет Государственного Совета Республики Грузия О восстановлении справедливости в отношении лиц, подвергшихся репрессиям в 1921—1924 гг. за участие в национально-освободительной борьбе Грузии]: ''The Decree on restoring justice towards the persons who were subjected to the repressions of 1921-1924 for their participation in the national-liberation struggle of Georgia'' (full text in Russian) | url= http://www.memo.ru/rehabilitate/laws/resp/gruz.htm | accessdate = 2006-12-17}}</ref> In connection with the opening of the [[Museum of Soviet Occupation, Tbilisi|Museum of Soviet Occupation]] in May 2006, more archival reserves were made public by the Ministry of Interior of Georgia which has recently started to publish the names of the victims of the 1924 purges and other materials from the Soviet era secret archives.<ref>{{ge icon}} {{cite web | last = საქართველოს შინაგან საქმეთა სამინისტრო (Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia) | first = | title = საარქივო სამმართველო (Archive Administration) | url=http://www.pol.ge/archive| accessdate = 2006-12-17}}</ref>
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== Lähteet ==
 
{{Käännös|:en:August Uprising}}
*{{Kirjaviite|Tekijä=ვალერი ბენიძე|Vuosi=1991|Nimeke=1924 წლის აჯანყება საქართველოში|Julkaisija=სამშობლო|Julkaisupaikka=Tbilisi}}
*{{Lehtiviite|Tekijä=ლევან ზ. ურუშაძე|Vuosi=2006|Otsikko=ქაიხოსრო (ქაქუცა) ჩოლოყაშვილის ბიოგრაფიისათვის|Julkaisu="ამირანი"|Numero=XIV-XV|Julkaisupaikka=მონრეალი-თბილისი|Sivut=147&ndash;166 |Tunniste=ISSN 15120449}}
*{{Kirjaviite|Tekijä=Ariel Cohen|Vuosi=1998|Nimeke=Russian Imperialism: Development and Crisis|Julkaisija=Praeger/Greenwood|Tunniste=ISBN 0275964817.}}
*{{Kirjaviite|Tekijä=Raymond Duguet|Vuosi=1927|Nimeke=Moscou et la Géorgie martyre. Préface de C. B. Stokes.|Julkaisija=Paris: Tallandier.}}
*{{Verkkoviite | Tekijä=Stephen F. Jones |Nimeke=The Establishment of Soviet Power in Transcaucasia: The Case of Georgia 1921-1928 | Julkaisija=Soviet Studies 40, No. 4|Vuosi=1988 | Sivu=616&ndash;639 | Osoite= http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0038-5859%28198810%2940%3A4%3C616%3ATEOSPI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C&size=LARGE}}
*{{Kirjaviite|Tekijä=Amy W. Knight|Vuosi=1993|Nimeke=Beria: Stalin's First Lieutenant|Julkaisija=Princeton University Press|Tunniste=ISBN 0691010935.}}
*{{Kirjaviite|Tekijä=David Marshall Lang|Vuosi=1962|Nimeke=A Modern History of Georgia|Julkaisija=London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson}}
*{{Verkkoviite | Tekijä=Karl E. Meyer |Nimeke=Icebergs in the Caucasus | Julkaisija=World Policy Journal CODA XVIII, No. 2 |Vuosi= 2001 |Osoite=http://worldpolicy.org/journal/codaxviii2.html}}
*{{Kirjaviite|Tekijä=Ghia Nodia, Álvaro Pinto Scholtbach, jne.|Vuosi=2006|Nimeke=The Political Landscape of Georgia|Julkaisija=Eburon Delft|Tunniste=ISBN 9059721136.}}
*{{Kirjaviite|Tekijä=Roger William Pethybridge|Vuosi=1990|Nimeke=One Step Backwards, Two Steps Forward: Soviet Society and Politics in the New Economic Policy|Julkaisija=Oxford University Press|Tunniste=ISBN 019821927X.}}
*{{Kirjaviite|Tekijä=Rudolph J. Rummel|Vuosi=1990|Nimeke=Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917|Julkaisija=Transaction Publishers|Tunniste=ISBN 1560008873. }}
*{{Kirjaviite|Tekijä=Boris Souvarine|Vuosi=2005|Nimeke=Stalin: A Critical Survey of Bolshevism|Julkaisija=Kessinger Publishing|Tunniste=ISBN 1419113070.}}
*{{Kirjaviite|Tekijä=Ronald Grigor Suny|Vuosi=1994|Nimeke=The Making of the Georgian Nation: 2nd edition|Julkaisija=Indiana University Press|Tunniste=ISBN 0-253-20915-3.}}
*{{Kirjaviite|Tekijä=Akaki Surguladze, Paata Surguladze|Vuosi=1991|Nimeke=საქართველოს ისტორია, 1783-1990|Julkaisija=Meroni|Julkaisupaikka=Tbilisi}}
*{{Lehtiviite|Tekijä=Markus Wehner|Otsikko=Le soulèvement géorgien de 1924 et la réaction des bolcheviks | Julkaisu=Communisme |Vuosi=1995 |Numero=42/43/44 | Sivut=155&ndash;170}}
 
=== Viitteet ===
{{Viitteet|sarakkeet}}
 
== Aiheesta muualla ==
 
*[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AyJgYioDxLQ Dokumenttifilmi "1924"] YouTubessa.
 
[[Luokka:Georgian historia]]
 
[[de:August-Aufstand in Georgien]]
[[en:August UprsingUprising]]
[[et:Augustimäss]]
[[eo:Aŭgusta ribelo de Kartvelio]]
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