Avaa päävalikko

Muutokset

2 683 merkkiä lisätty ,  8 kuukautta sitten
==Historiallisia esimerkkejä==
{|class="wikitable"
!width=150px180px|ValtioState
!Time period
!Vuodet
!Ruling group or person
!Valtapuolue tai johtaja
!Notes
|-
|rowspan="3"|{{ArgentiinaArgentina}}<ref>Todd L. Edwards, ''Argentina: A Global Studies Handbook'' (2008), pp. 45–46; Steven E. Sanderson, [https://books.google.com/books?id=_xWYSJw3aAQC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false The Politics of Trade in Latin American Development] (1992), Stanford University Press, p. 133; William C. Smith, ''Reflections on the Political Economy of Authoritarian Rule and Capitalist Reorganization in Contemporary Argentina'', in ''[https://books.google.com/books?id=r0PoAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false Generals in Retreat: The Crisis of Military Rule in Latin America]'' (1985), eds. Philip J. O'Brien & Paul A. Cammack, Manchester University Press.</ref><ref>Guillermo A. O'Donnell, ''Bureaucratic Authoritarianism: Argentina, 1966–1973, in Comparative Perspective'' (University of California Press, 1988); James M. Malloy, ''[https://books.google.com/books?id=BHxRrTrLSokC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false Authoritarianism and Corporatism in Latin America: The Modal Pattern]'', in ''Democracy in Latin America: Patterns and Cycles'' (1996; ed. Roderic A. Camp), p. 122; Howard J. Wiards, ''Corporatism and Comparative Politics: The Other Great "ism"'' (1997), pp. 113–14.</ref>
|1966–1973
|Military government
|Sotilashallitus
|[[Argentine Revolution]] period of military rule
|-
|1973–1974
|''[[PeronismiPeronism|Justicialista]]'' rule of [[Juan Perón]]in valtakaudella
|Ideology is populist authoritarianism
|-
|1976–1983
|[[Free trade]] and [[Deregulation|deregulatory]] rule of [[Jorge Rafael Videla]]
|[[National Reorganization Process]] period of military rule
|-
|rowspan="2"|{{Brasiliaflagicon image|Flag of Brazil (1889-1960).svg}} [[Brazil]]<ref>James M. Malloy, ''Authoritarianism and Corporatism in Latin America: The Modal Pattern, in Democracy in Latin America: Patterns and Cycles'' (ed. Roderic A. Camp), p. 122; Thomas E. Skidmore, ''The Political Economy of Policy-making in Authoritarian Brazil, 1967–70'', in ''Generals in Retreat: The Crisis of Military Rule in Latin America'' (1985), eds. Philip J. O'Brien & Paul A. Cammack, Manchester University Press.</ref>
|1937–1945
|[[Getúlio Vargas]]
|[[Estado Novo (Brazil)|Estado Novo]] period
|-
|[[1964 Brazilian coup d'état|1964]]–1985
|1964–1985
|[[Brazilian military government|Military government]]
|[[Brasilian sotilasjuntta 1969|Sotilashallitus]]
|
|-
| {{Burmaflagicon image|Flag of Myanmar (1974-19882010).svg}} [[Burma]]<ref>Thomas Carothers, [http://carnegieendowment.org/2012/04/02/is-burma-democratizing/a62j Q&A: Is Burma Democratizing?] (April 2, 2012), Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; [http://asiafoundation.org/news/2013/04/asia-foundation-president-discusses-burmamyanmar-in-transition-at-world-affairs-council-sacramento/ President Discusses Burma/Myanmar in Transition at World Affairs Council Sacramento] ( April 3. huhtikuuta, 2013), Asia Foundation; Louise Arbour, [https://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/06/opinion/in-myanmar-sanctions-have-had-their-day.html In Myanmar, Sanctions Have Had Their Day] (March 5. maaliskuuta, 2012), ''The New York Times''.</ref>
|[[1962 Burmese coup d'état|1962]]–[[2011–12 Burmese political reforms|2011]]
|1962–2011
|Military government and [[Burma Socialist Programme Party|Socialist Programme Party]]
|Sotilashallitus. [[Burman sosialistisen ohjelman puolue]]
|
|-
|{{Chile}}<ref>Steven E. Sanderson, ''The Politics of Trade in Latin American Development'' (1992), Stanford University Press, p. 133; Carlos Huneeus, ''Political Mass Mobilization Against Authoritarian Rule: Pinochet's Chile, 1983–88'', in ''[https://books.google.com/books?id=ymAVDAAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q=authoritarianism&f=false Civil Resistance and Power Politics:The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present]'' (2009), Oxford University Press (eds. Adam Roberts & Timothy Garton Ash).</ref>
|[[1973 Chilean coup d'état|1973]]–1990
|1973–1990
|[[Augusto Pinochet]]
|
|-
|{{Croatia}}<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.theguardian.com/news/1999/dec/13/guardianobituaries.iantraynor|title=Franjo Tudjman, Authoritarian leader whose communist past and nationalist obsessions fuelled his ruthless pursuit of an independent Croatia|date=13 December 1999|publisher=The Guardian|accessdate=5 January 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.britannica.com/biography/Franjo-Tudjman|title=Franjo Tuđman|publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica|accessdate=5 January 2019}}</ref>
|{{Egypti}}<ref>Maye Kassem, Egyptian Politics: The Dynamics of Authoritarian Rule (2004); Andrea M. Perkins, [http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2736&context=etd Mubarak's Machine: The Durability of the Authoritarian Regime in Egypt] (M.A. thesis, April 8, 2010, University of South Florida).</ref>
|1990–1999
|[[Franjo Tuđman]]
|
|-
|{{Czechoslovakia}}
|1938–1939
|[[Party of National Unity (Czechoslovakia)|Party of National Unity]]
|
|-
|{{EgyptiEgypt}}<ref>Maye Kassem, ''Egyptian Politics: The Dynamics of Authoritarian Rule'' (2004); Andrea M. Perkins, [http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2736&context=etd Mubarak's Machine: The Durability of the Authoritarian Regime in Egypt] (M.A. thesis, April 8, 2010, University of South Florida).</ref>
|1952–2011
|[[Gamal Abdel Nasser]], [[Anwar Sadat]] ja and [[Hosni Mubarak]]
|
|-
|{{Indonesia}}
|1967–[[Aasian1997 talouskriisiAsian Crisis|1998]]
|[[Suharto]]
|
|-
|{{Libyanflagicon sosialistisenimage|Flag arabikansantasavallanof lippuLibya (1977-2011).svg}}[[Libya]]<ref>[https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/special/world/gaddafis-rule-timeline/ Gaddafi's 41-Year-Long Rule], ''The Washington Post''; Martin Asser, [httphttps://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12688033 The Muammar Gaddafi Story] (October 21, 2011), BBC News; Alistair Dawber, [https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/one-libyan-in-three-wants-return-to-authoritarian-rule-6950631.html One Libyan in three wants return to authoritarian rule] (February 16. helmikuuta, 2012), ''Independent''.</ref>
|1969–[[2011 Libyan sisällissotaCivil War|2011]]
|[[Muammar Gaddafi]]
|
|-
|{{LiettuaLithuania}}<ref>{{cite journal|last=Misiunas|first=Romuald J.|year=1970|title=Fascist Tendencies in Lithuania|journal=Slavonic and East European Review|volume=48|issue=110|pages=88–109|jstor=4206165}}</ref>
|1926–[[1940 Soviet ultimatum to Lithuania|1940]]
|1926–1940
|[[Antanas Smetona]]
|
|-
|{{MakedoniaMacedonia}}<ref>Matthew Brunwasser, [https://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/14/world/europe/concerns-grow-about-authoritarianism-in-macedonia.html?_r=0/ Concerns Grow About Authoritarianism in Macedonia], ''The New York Times'', October 13, 2011.</ref><ref>Andrew MacDowall, [https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/feb/27/fears-macedonias-fragile-democracy-amid-coup-wiretap-claims Fears for Macedonia's fragile democracy amid 'coup' and wiretap claims], ''The Guardian'', February 27, 2015.</ref>
|2006–2016
|[[Nikola Gruevski]]
|
|-
|rowspan="2"|{{PortugaliPortugal}}<ref>{{cite journal|last=Pinto|first=António Costa|year=2006|title=Authoritarian legacies, transitional justice and state crisis in Portugal's democratization|journal=Democratization|volume=13|issue=2|pages=173–204|doi=10.1080/13510340500523895}} [http://www.ics.ul.pt/publicacoes/workingpapers/wp2005/wp2005_3.pdf Working paper].</ref>
|1926–1933
|1932–1974
|Military government
|[[António de Oliveira Salazar]] ja [[Marcelo Caetano]]
|[[Ditadura Nacional (Portugal)|National Dictatorship]]
|-
|1933–[[Carnation Revolution|1974]]
|{{Francon Espanjan lippu}} [[Espanja]]<ref>Richard Gunther, The Spanish Model Revisited, in The Politics and Memory of Democratic Transition: The Spanish Model, (eds. Diego Muro & Gregorio Alonso), Taylor & Francis 2010, p. 19.</ref>
|[[António de Oliveira Salazar]] ja and [[Marcelo Caetano]]
|1936–[[Espanjan siirtyminen demokratiaan|1975]]
|Under the [[Estado Novo (Portugal)|Estado Novo regime]]
|-
|{{Franconflagicon Espanjanimage|Flag lippuof Spain (1945 - 1977).svg}} [[EspanjaSpain]]<ref>Richard Gunther, ''The Spanish Model Revisited'', in ''[https://books.google.com/books?id=JhStAgAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false The Politics and Memory of Democratic Transition: The Spanish Model]'', (eds. Diego Muro & Gregorio Alonso), Taylor & Francis 2010, p. 19.</ref>
|1936–[[Spanish transition to democracy|1975]]
|[[Francisco Franco]]
|
|-
|{{Etelä-Afrikanflagicon lippuimage|Flag of South Africa (1928-1994).svg}} [[Etelä-AfrikkaSouth Africa]]<ref>Tracy Kuperus, [https://books.google.com/books?id=J-n5URXKPRoC&pg=PA77 Building a Pluralist Democracy: An Examination of Religious Associations in South Africa and Zimbabwe], in ''Race and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Multicultural Dialogue in Comparative Perspective'' (eds. William E. Van Vugt & G. Daan Cloete), Lexington Books, 2000.</ref><ref>''[https://books.google.com/books?id=pQf1AgAAQBAJ&pg=PA27 The South Africa Reader: History, Culture, Politics]'' (eds. Clifton Crais & Thomas V. McClendon; Duke University Press, 2014), p. 279.</ref>
|1948–1994
|[[National Party (South Africa)|National Party]]
|[[Kansallispuolue (Etelä-Afrikka)|Kansallispuolue]]
|Regime ended with the end of [[apartheid]]
|-
|rowspan="2"|{{Etelä-South Korea}}<ref>[http://www.wilsoncenter.org/event/the-other-rok-memories-authoritarianism-democratic-south-korea The Other R.O.K.: Memories of Authoritarianism in Democratic South Korea] (October 11.lokakuuta, 2011), [[Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars]]; Sangmook Lee, [http://www.tfd.org.tw/docs/dj0301_new/099-126-Sangmook%20Lee.pdf Democratic Transition and the Consolidation of Democracy in South Korea] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121224195621/http://www.tfd.org.tw/docs/dj0301_new/099-126-Sangmook%20Lee.pdf|date=December 24, 2012}} July 2007, ''Taiwan Journal of Democracy'', Volume 3, No. 1, pp. 99–125.</ref><ref>Hyug Baeg Im, [http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract;jsessionid=44F94BAE852A3B2B3E02069091C16DFC.journals?fromPage=online&aid=7616752 The Rise of Bureaucratic Authoritarianism in South Korea], ''World Politics'' Vol. 39, Issue 2 (tammikuuJanuary 1987), pp. 231–57</ref>
|1948–1960
|[[Syngman Rhee]]
|
|-
|1962–1987
|[[Park Chung-hee]] jaand [[Chun Doo-hwan]]
|
|-
|{{Taiwan}}<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Leng|first1=Shao-chuan|last2=Lin|first2=Cheng-yi|year=1993|title=Political Change on Taiwan: Transition to Democracy?|journal=[[The China Quarterly|publisher=Cambridge University Press]]|volume=|issue=136|pages=805–39|doi=|issn=0305-7410|jstor=655592|registration=y}}; Shirley A. Kan, Congressional Research Service, [https://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R41263.pdf Democratic Reforms in Taiwan: Issues for Congress] (May 26, 2010); ''Taiwan's Electoral Politics and Democratic Transition: Riding the Third Wave'' (1996), eds. Charles Chi-Hsiang Chang & Hung-Mao Tien; Edward S. Steinfeld, ''Playing Our Game:Why China's Rise Doesn't Threaten the West'' (2010), Oxford University Press, pp. 217–22.</ref>
|1945–1990
|[[Kuomintang]]
|
|-
|{{TurkkiTurkey}}<ref>Erik J. Zürcher, [https://books.google.com/books?id=qaC24BFy4JQC Turkey: A Modern History] (I.B. Tauris: rev. ed. 1997), pp. 176–206.</ref><ref>Ayse Gül Altinay, ''[https://books.google.com/books?id=keLIAAAAQBAJ The Myth of the Military-Nation: Militarism, Gender, and Education in Turkey]'' (Palgrave Macmillan, 2004), pp. 19–20.</ref>
|1925–1945
|[[Republican People's Party (Turkey)|Republican People's Party]]
|[[Tasavaltalainen kansanpuolue]]
|
|-
|{{FR Yugoslavia}}<ref>{{cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/931018.stm|title=Milosevic: Serbia's fallen strongmany |date=30 March 2001|publisher=BBC|accessdate=12 December 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Pribićević|title="Serbia—From Authoritarian Regime to Democracy." Serbian Studies: Journal of the North American Society for Serbian Studies|publisher=Project MUSE}}</ref>
|1991–[[Overthrow of Slobodan Milošević|2000]]
|[[Slobodan Milošević]]
|
|-
|{{Zimbabwe}}<ref>Daniel Compagnon, ''[https://books.google.com/books/about/A_Predictable_Tragedy.html?id=Ff-F2wS_YW4C A Predictable Tragedy: Robert Mugabe and the Collapse of Zimbabwe]'' ([[University of Pennsylvania Press]], 2011).</ref>
|1980–2017
|[[Robert Mugabe]]
|
|}
 
===Konstantin Pätsin Viro===
Esimerkki autoritaarisesta hallinnosta voisi olla [[Viro]]n [[Konstantin Päts]]in hallinto vuosina 1934–1938. Äärioikeistolaisten vapsien (vapaussoturien) ollessa voittamaisillaan vaalit Päts esti tämän hyödyntämällä näiden tahdosta jo säädettyä valtionpäämiehen oikeutta hallita ilman eduskuntaa. Päts julisti maahan poikkeustilan, toimi autoritaarisena yksinvaltiaana ja kielsi poliittiset puolueet. Vaikka järjestäytynyt poliittinen vastustus oli tällöin kielletty, jonkinasteinen oppositiotoiminta sallittiin. Kansanedustuksellisia elimiä ei poistettu, mutta esimerkiksi parlamenttia ei kutsuttu koolle, ja muiden elimien vaaleissa ehdokasasettelu rajattiin hallituksen kannattajiin. Päts valitutti itsensä [[riigivanem]]iksi ja presidentiksi. Poliittisia vastustajia painostettiin monin tavoin, ja vangitsemiset olivat yleisiä. Vastustajia ei kuitenkaan teloitettu. Viron myöhempi presidentti Lennart Meri on kuvannut Pätsin hallintoa [[Puolidemokratia|''pehmeäksi diktatuuriksi''.]] Vuonna 1938 vapsien aseman heikennyttyä hän alkoi taas palauttaa demokraattisia elementtejä hallintoon.
 
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