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'''Väestönlaskenta''' on toimenpide, jolla hankitaan tietoa [[väestö]]n jokaisesta yksilöstä. Näin saadaan [[tilastotiede|tilastotieteellistä]] tietoa väestöstä.
 
==HistoriaVarhaishistoria==
Vanhin säilynyt väestötieteellinen tieto on Kiinasta ajanlaskun alun tienoilta. Väestönlaskentaa on suoritettu vuosisatoja, ja se on tehty verotuksellisista syistä. Yksi ensimmäisistä aikakirjoihin merkityistä väestönlaskennoista tehtiin [[Persia]]ssa vuosina 500–499&nbsp;eaa. <ref>Kuhrt, A. (1995) The Ancient Near East c. 3000–330BC Vol 2 Routledge, London. s 695</ref>
 
Väestönlaskentaa on monissa maissa suoritettu jo tuhansia vuosia sitten, useimmiten verotuksellisista syistä. Vanhin säilynyt luotettava väestötieteellinen tieto on Kiinasta ajanlaskun alun tienoilta.
Myös [[Rooman valtakunta|Roomassa]] järjestettiin niin sanottuja ''censuksia'' verotuksen järjestämiseksi. Censusten järjestäminen oli [[censori]]en vastuulla.
 
===SuomiMuinainen Egypti===
Egyptiläisessä [[Palermon kivi|Palermon kivessä]] on säilynyt maininta, joka osoittaa, että jo [[Egyptin vanha valtakunta|vanhan valta­kunnan]] aikana järjestettiin säännöllisesti väestön­laskentoja.<ref>{{verkkoviite | Osoite = http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/administration/law.html | Nimeke = Law in Ancient Egypt | Julkaisija = University College London | Viitattu = 2.11.2011}}</ref>
 
===Muinainen Israel===
[[Raamattu|Raamatussa]] on useita mainintoja väestön­laskennoista. [[Toinen Mooseksen kirja|Toisen Mooseksen kirjan]] mukaan israelilaisten oli suoritettava [[ilmestysmaja]]n ylläpitämiseksi puolen [[sekeli]]n sovitus­maksu, jota varten heidät oli myös laskettava.<ref>{{raamatunpaikka|2. Moos. 11-16}}</ref>. [[Neljäs Mooseksen kirja]] on saanut latinalaisen nimensä ''Numeri'' ({{k-en|Book of Numbers}}) väestön­laskennoista, jotka sen mukaan suoritettiin ensin [[Siinai]]n erämaassa toisena vuotena Egyptistä lähdön jälkeen<ref>{{raamatunpaikka|4. Moos. 1:1-47}}</ref> ja uudestaan myöhemmin [[Moab]]in arolla.<ref>{{raamatunpaikka|4. Moos. 26:1-65}}</ref>
 
Myös [[Daavid]]in mainitaan panneen toimeen väestön­laskennan Israelissa<ref>{{raamatunpaikka|2. Sam. 24:1-9}}</ref>, minkä [[Ensimmäinen aikakirja|Ensimmäisen aika­kirjan]] mukaan kuitenkin johtui [[saatana]]n yllytyksestä<ref>{{raamatunpaikka|1. Aik. 21:1-7}}</ref> ja johti kohtalokkaisiin seurauksiin.<ref>{{raamatunpaikka|1. Aik. 21:8-15}}</ref> Hänen poikansa [[Salomo]]n kerrotaan laskeneen kaikki Israelissa olleet ulko­maalaiset.<ref>{{raamatunpaikka|2. Aik. 2:17}}</ref>
 
[[Evankeliumi Luukkaan mukaan|Luukkaan evankeliumin]] mukaan [[Jeesus]] syntyi hetkellä, jolloin keisari [[Augustus|Augustuksen]] määräämää yleistä väestön­laskentaa ja [[verollepano]]a oltiin parhaillaan toteuttamassa.<ref>{{raamatunpaikka|Luuk. 2:1-7}}</ref>
 
===Kiina===
Maailman vanhimmat väestönlaskennat, joissa saadut tiedot ovat säilyneet, suoritettiin [[Kiina]]ssa. [[Kiina]]sta. Kanadalaisen tietosanakirjan (''The Canadian Encyclopedia'') mukaan Kiinassa suoritettiin väestönlaskenta jo 4000 vuotta sitten.<ref>{{verkkoviite | Osoite = http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0020060| Nimeke = Census - The Canadian Encyclopedia| Julkaisija = Statistics Canada| Viitattu = 2.11.2011}}</ref>. Muinaisen Kiinan tunnetuin väestön­laskenta suoritettiin kuitenkin [[Han-dynastia]]n aikana vuonna 2 jKr.<ref name=ChinaFD>{{verkkoviite | Osoite = http://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=39&catid=2&subcatid=2| Nimeke = China - Facts and Details: Han Dynasty (206 B.C. - A.D. 220) | Julkaisija=Jeffrey Hays}}</ref><ref>Twitchett, D., Loewe, M., and Fairbank, J.K. <u>Cambridge History of China: The Ch'in and Han Empires 221 B.C.-A.D. 220</u>. Cambridge University Press (1986), p. 240.</ref> Tutkijat pitävät sen tuloksia sangen luotettavina.<ref name=ChinaFD />. Sen mukaan Kiinassa oli tuolloin 57,67 miljoonaa asukasta ja 12,36 miljoonaa kotitaloutta.<ref>Nishijima (1986), 595–596.</ref><ref>H. Yoon (1985). "An early Chinese idea of a dynamic environmental cycle", ''[[GeoJournal]]'' '''10''' (2), pp. 211-212.</ref> Kolmas väestönlaskenta, josta on säilynyt tietoja, suoritettiin vuonna 144, jolloin asukkaita oli 49,73 miljoonaa ja kotitalouksia 9,94 miljoonaa.
 
===Intia===
Intian vanhin väestönlaskenta, josta on säilynyt tietoja, suoritettiin noin vuonna 300 eKr keisari [[Chandragupta Maurya]]n valtakaudella [[Kautilya]]n johdolla.<ref>{{Verkkoviite| Osoite = http://censusindia.gov.in/Data_Products/Library/Indian_perceptive_link/History_link/censushistory.htm| Nimeke = Census Commissioner of India - Historical Background | Julkaisija = Govt. of India| quote=The records of census conducted appears from 300 BCE.}}</ref>. Myöhemmin sellaisia ei tiedetä suoritetun ennen kuin [[moguli]]hallitsija [[Akbar]]in aikana.
 
===Rooman valtakunta===
 
[[Rooman valtakunta|Rooman valtakunnan]] hallinnossa määräaikaisilla väestönlaskennoilla eli ''censuksilla'' oli tärkeä merkitys, ja ne suoritettiin verojen määräämistä varten. Harvoja poikkeuksia lukuun ottamatta sellainen pidettiin joka viides vuosi.<ref>Walter Scheidel: <u>Rome and China: comparative perspectives on ancient world empires</u>. Oxford University Press (2009), sivu 28.</ref> Tuloksena saatiin luettelo kansalaisista ja heidän omaisuudestaan, jonka perusteella heidän oikeutensa ja velvollisuutensa määräytyivät. [[Livius|Liviuksen]] mukaan ensimmäisen censuksen pani toimeen kuningas [[Servius Tullius]] 500-luvulla eKr.<ref>Livius: ''Ab urbe Condita: 1.42</ref> Censusten järjestäminen oli [[censori]]en vastuulla.
 
Väestönlaskenta tarkoittava [[latina]]n sana ''census'' on lainautunut muun muassa [[englannin kieli|englannin kieleen]].
 
===Kalifaatti===
Keskiajalla [[Arabien maailmanvalta|arabien]] [[kalifaatti]] alkoi suorittaa väestönlaskentoja pian perustamisensa jälkeen. Ensimmäisen sellaisen pani toimeen kalifi [[Omar ibn al-Khattab|Omar]].<ref>{{lehtiviite|Nimeke = Population Census and Land Surveys under the Umayyads (41–132/661–750)|Kirjoittaja = Wadād al-Qādī1|Julkaisu=Der Islam|Numero=83|issue=2|Sivu=341–416|doi=10.1515/ISLAM.2006.015|Ajankohta=July 2008|postscript=.}}</ref>
 
===Keskiajan Eurooppae===
[[Domesday Book]] laadittiin Englannissa [[Vilhelm Valloittaja]]n käskystä vuonna 1086, jotta hän voisi verottaa valloittamaansa maata. Vuonna 1183 [[ristiretket|ristiretkeläisten]] perustamassa [[Jerusalemin kuningaskunta|Jerusalemin kuningaskunnassa]] suoritettiin väestönlaskenta sen selvittämiseksi, kuinka paljon miehiä ja rahaa voitaisiin saada kokoon, mikäli Egyptin ja Syyrian sulttaani [[Saladin]] aikoisi hyökätä sen alueelle.
 
===Inkavaltio===
1400-luvulla [[inkavaltio]]lla oli ainutlaatuinen tapa kerätä väestötietoja. Inkoilla ei ollut kirjoitettua kieltä, mutta numeerista tietoa voitiin tallentaa [[quipu]]lle,<ref>{{kirjaviite | Tekijä = Jaakko Anhava | Nimeke = Maailman kielet ja kielikunnat | Sivu = 197 | Julkaisija = Gaudeamus | Vuosi = 2005 | Selite = 3. painos | Tunniste = ISBN 951-662-734-X}}</ref><ref>{{kirjaviite | Tekijä = Jared Diamond | Nimeke = Tykit, taudit ja teräs, Ihmisen ihmiskuntien kohtalot | Sivu = 389 | Suomentaja = Kimmo Pietiläinen | Julkaisija = Terra Cognita | Vuosi = 2003 | Tunniste = ISBN 952-5202-56-9}}</ref> [[laama]]n tai [[alpakka|alpakan]] karvoista valmistetuille köysille, joissa olevat solmut tarkoittivat lukuja kymmenjärjestelmän mukaisesti.
 
===Espanjan imperiumi===
Espanjan kuningas [[Filip II]] antoi 25. toukokuuta 1577 määräyksen, jonka mukaan Espanjan omistukset [[Länsi-Intia]]ssa oli laskettava. Cronista Mayor-Cosmógrafon toimistossa laadittiin ohjeet ja kyselylomake, joka jaettiin [[Uusi Espanja|Uuden Espanjan]] ja [[Peru]]n viranomaisille tietojen keräämiseksi. Kyselylomakkeessa oli 50 osaa, ja sen tarkoituksena oli saada tietoa maasta ja sen asukkaiden elämästä. Tulokset, jotka tunnetaan nimellä "relaciones geográficas", kirjattiin vuosien 1579 ja 1595 välillä ja palautettiin Espanjaan Cronista Mayor-Cosmógrafolle.
 
== Nykyajan väestönlaskennat eri maissa ==
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=== Afghanistan ===
[[Afganistan]]issa suoritettiin vuonna 2980 osittainen ja epä­täydellinen väestön­laskenta. Uutta väestön­laskentaa suunniteltiin vuodeksi 2007.<ref>[http://afghanistan.unfpa.org/projects.html#rhs UNFPA Projects in Afghanistan].</ref>
 
===Albania===
[[Albania]]ssa suoritettiin väestönlaskenta viimeksi vuonna 2001.<ref>{{verkkoviite | Osoite = http://www.instat.gov.al/repoba/english/default_english.htm | Nimeke = Albania: 2001 census}}</ref>. Edellinen väestönlaskenta oli suoritettu vuonna 1989 [[kommunismi|kommunistien]] valtakauden lopulla.
 
===Algeria===
[[Algeria]]ssa on yleinen väestönlaskenta suoritettu vuosina 1967, 1977, 1987, 1998 ja 2008. Seuraava väestönlaskenta aiotaan suorittaa vuonna 2016.
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===Antigua ja Barbuda===
A Population & Housing Census was carried out in 2001. The next census is scheduled for 2011.
--Onko jo suoritettu? -->
 
===Argentiina===
[[Argentiina]]ssa kansallinen väestönlaskenta suoritetaan yleensä joka kymmenes vuosi, viimeksi 27. lokakuuta 2010.
 
===Australia===
[[Australia]]ssa väestön­laskennat panee toimeen [[Australian Bureau of Statistics]]. Sellainen suoritetaan yleensä joka viides vuosi, viimeksi 9. elokuuta 2011. Aikaisemmat väestön­laskennat Australiassa suoritettiin vuosina 1911, 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 ja 1961, sekä vuoden 1961 jälkeen joka viides vuosi. Vuonna 2006 australialaiset saattoivat ensimmäisen kerran luovuttaa tiedot väestön­laskentaa varten verkon kautta.
 
===Azerbaidžan===
[[Azerbaidžan]]issa väestönlaskenta suoritettiin Venäjän ja Neuvostoliiton vallan aikana vuosina 1897, 1926, 1937, 1939, 1959, 1970, 1979 ja 1989. Maan itsenäistymisen jlkeen väestönlaskenta on suoritettu kaksi kertaa, vuosina 1999 ja 2009.<ref>[http://www.rferl.org/content/Population_Census_Gets_Under_Way_In_Azerbaijan/1608527.html Population Census Gets Under Way In Azerbaijan]. ''Radio Free Europe''. 14.4.2009.</ref>
 
===Bangladesh===
Bangladeshin tilastotoimisto (''Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics'', BBS) on suorittanut väestönlaskennan vuosina 1974, 1981, 1991 ja 2001. Vuonna 2011 se pidettiin maaliskuun 15. ja 19. päivien välisenä aikana.
 
===Barbados===
[[Barbados|Barbadoksella]] yleinen väestönlaskenta suoritettiin viimeksi vuonna 2010.
 
===Benin===
[[Benin]]issä väestönlaskenta on suoritettu vuosina 1978, 1992 ja 2002.
 
===Bolivia===
[[Bolivia]]ssa on suoritettu väestön- ja asutuslaskenta vuosina 1992 ja 2001. Seuraavan kerran se aiotaan suorittaa vuonna 2012.
 
===Brasilia===
[[Brasilia]]n maantieteen ja tilastotieteen laitos (IGBE) suorittaa yleisen väestönlaskennan joka kymmenes vuosi, viimeksi 2010. Ensimmäisen kerran sellainen pantiin toimeen vuonna 1872, myhemmin vuosina 1900, 1920, 1941, 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1991 ja 2000.
 
Brasilian demografinen väestönlaskenta on yksi maailman hierarkkisimmista väestötietojen kokoelmista. Se sisältää tiedot koko maan, suuralueiden, osavaltioiden, makro- ja mikroalueiden, kuntien, kaupunginosien, osa-alueiden, lähialueiden ja tilastoalueiden tasolla.
 
Hallinnollisesta hierarkiatasosta riippuen joitakin tietoja ei julkaista, sillä ne ovat luottamuksellisia.
 
Esimerkiksi:
 
1. Tilastoinnin alimman tason muodostavat tilastoalueet, joihin kuuluu noin 300 kotitaloutta. Tällä tasolla kerätään tilastotietoa muun muassa asukkaiden iästä, asemasta perheestsä, sukupuolesta ja tuloista.
 
2. Kaupunginosien tasolta kerätään tilastotietoa asukkaiden rodusta, ihonväristä, uskonnosta ja vammaisuudesta jne.
 
3. Kuntien ja kaupunkien tasolla kerätään tilastotietoa myös bruttokansantuotteesta, teollisuus- ja maataloustuotannosta, muuttoliikkeestä eri kaupunkien välillä, työllisyysasteesta, yritysten lukumäärästä ja kaupan määrästä.
 
===Bulgaria===
[[Bulgaria]]n kuvernöörit järjestivät kansallisen väestönlaskennan pian maan itsenäistymisen jälkeen. Vuonna 1881 sellainen pantiin toimeen ruhtinaskunnassa, vuonna 1884 [[Itä-Rumelia]]ssa. Yhdistyneessä maassa sellainen suoritettiin ensimmäisen kerran vuonna 1888. Myöhemmin sellainen on suoritettu vuosina 1892, 1900, 1905, 1910, 1920, 1926, 1934, 1946, 1956, 1965, 1975, 1985, 1992 ja 2001.
 
Väestönlaskentojen tuloksia vuodesta 1888 [[toinen maailmansota|toiseen maailman­sotaan]] saakka pidetään ajan oloon nähden hyvin luotettavina. Bulgarian sen­aikaiset johtavat tilasto­tieteilijät olivat yleensä opiskelleet Länsi-Euroopan yli­opistoissa, osallistuneet ahkerasti kansain­väliseen yhteis­työhön ja omaksuneet aika­kauden parhaat menetelmät. Myöhempien väestön­laskentojen tulosten laatu on kiistan­alainen. Uskontoa koskeva kysymys vuoden 2001 väestön­laskennassa ei tehnyt mahdolliseksi laskea uskonto­kuntiin kuulumattomien bulgarialaisten lukumäärää erikseen.
 
===Chile===
[[Chile]]ssä kansallinen tilastotoimisto ''Institute Nacional de Estadísticas'' (INE) suorittaa väestönlaskennan joka kymmenes vuosi, viimeksi 2002.
 
===Costa Rica===
[[Costa Rica]]ssa yleinen väestön­laskenta on suoritettu vuosina 1864, 1883, 1892, 1927, 1950, 1963, 1973, 1984, 2000 ja 2011.
 
===Egypti===
 
Finanssiministeriön tilastotoimisto pani toimeen ensimmäisen väestönlaskennan vuonna 1882, mitä pidettiin valmistavana askelena: ensimmäinen koko väestöä koskeva laskenta suoritettiin vuonna 1897. Siitä lähtien väestönlaskenta on suoritettu joka kymmenes vuosi, viimeksi 2007.
 
===Etiopia===
[[Etiopia]]ssa väestönlaskenta on suoritettu kolme kertaa, vuosina 1984, 1994 and in 2007. Ne panee toimeen tilastollinen keskusvirasto.
 
Vuoden 2007 väestönlaskenta suoritettiin suurimmaksi osaksi vuonna 2007 eikä käsittänyt somalialueita eikä [[Afar]]in aluetta. Pohjoinen Afar on kaukainen, kuuma ja kuiva alue. Maan itäosien somalialueella, [[Ogaden]]issa asuu paimentolaisina suuri [[somalit|somaliväestö]], ja se on konfliktialue, jossa Etiopian asevoimat taistelevat [[Ogadenin kansallinen vapautusrintama|Ogadenin kansallista vapautusrintamaa]] (ONLF) vastaan.
 
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===Greece===
Census takes place every [[decennial|10 years]] and is carried out by the National Statistical Service of Greece.<ref>[http://www.statistics.gr Γενικη Γραμματεια Εσυε].</ref> A 2011 is taking place right now and will end in the 24th of May.<ref>[http://www.apografi2011.gr/en/index.php]</ref> Last census was in 2001.<ref>[http://www.statistics.gr/portal/page/portal/ESYE/PAGE-themes?p_param=A1604]</ref>
 
===Guatemala===
Modern population censuses have been taken in Guatemala in 1930, 1950, 1964, 1973, 1981, 1994 and in 2002. Controversial cenuses include those in 1950 and 1964 (misclassification of the Maya population) and 1994 (generally questioned). About 14,000,000 people live in Guatemala as of July 2009.
 
===Hong Kong===
{{Main|Census in Hong Kong}}
Census takes place every [[decennial|10 years]] and by-census between two censuses by the [[Census and Statistics Department]] of [[Government of Hong Kong|Hong Kong]]. The last census was conducted in 2001 and the next census would be taken in 2011.
 
===Hungary===
Official decennial censuses have been taken in Hungary since 1870; the latest one – in line with the recommendations of the United Nations and the Statistical Office of the European Union – was carried out in 2001.
Starting from 1880 the Hungarian census system was based on native language (the language spoken at home in the early life of the person and at the time of the survey), vulgar language (the most frequently used language in the family), and other spoken languages.
 
===Iceland===
The first [[Iceland]]ic census took place in [[Icelandic census of 1703|1703]], following upon the first [[Denmark|Danish]] census of 1700–1701. Further censuses were carried out in 1801, 1845 and 1865. The 1703 exercise was the first ever census to cover all inhabitants of an entire country, mentioning the name, age and social position of each individual. All of the information still exists, although some of the original documents have been lost.
 
The setting up, in 1952, of the [[National Registry of Iceland|National Registry]] (''Þjóðskrá'') eliminated the need for censuses. All those born in Iceland, and all new residents, are automatically registered. Individuals are identified in the registry by means of a [[national identification number]] (the so-called ''[[kennitala]]''), a number composed of the date of birth in the format ddmmyy and four additional digits, the third of which is a control digit, and the last of which indicates the century in which the person was born (9 for the 1900s and 0 for the 2000s).
 
The National Registry doubles as an [[electoral register]]. Likewise, all bank accounts are linked to the national identification of the owner (companies and institutions all have their own identification numbers).
 
=== India ===
{{Main|Demographics of India}}
The decennial census of [[India]] is the primary source of information about the demographic characteristics of the [[population of India]]. The 2011 census will be one of the largest censuses in the history of mankind.<ref name="dnaindia.com">{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report_census-2011-kicks-off-today_1366020 |Nimeke = Census-2011 kicks off today - India - DNA |Julkaisija = Dnaindia.com |date=2010-04-01 |Viitattu = 2011-11-02}}</ref>
 
The first census in India in modern times was conducted in 1872. First regular census was started in 1881 by Lord Rippon.Since then, a population census has been carried out every [[decennial|10 years]]. The [[15th Indian national census|latest census]] commenced on 1 May 2010. It will create a [[National Population Register]] with photographs and fingerprints of every resident. All usual residents of India will also be provided with their Unique ID numbers and [[National Identity Card]]s.
The census is carried out by the office of the [[Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India]], [[Delhi]], an office in the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, under the 1948 Census of India Act. The act gives Central Government many powers like to notify a date for Census, power to ask for the services of any citizen for census work. The law makes it compulsory for every citizen to answer the census questions truthfully. The Act provides penalties for giving false answers or not giving answers at all to the census questionnaire. One of the most important provisions of law is the guarantee for the maintenance of secrecy of the information collected at the census of each individual. The census records are not open to inspection and also not admissible in evidence.
 
The census is conducted in two phases: first, house listing and house numbering phase and second, the actual population enumeration phase. The census is carried out by the canvassing method. In this method, each and every household is visited and the information is collected by specially trained enumerator. They collect data related to households e.g. number of members, water & electricity supply, ownership of land, vehicles, computers and other assets and services. In the second phase, total population is counted and statistics related to individuals are collected.<ref name="dnaindia.com"/>
 
=== Indonesia ===
The first population census was done during the colonial era, 1930. Before that, a non-overall census was already conducted in 1920. After that census was done irregularly. The first census after independence was 1961, followed by 1971. Since 1980 it is conducted regularly every 10 years. In between, there is also economical census (every 10 years, five years after population census) and agricultural census (three years after population census).The last census was held on May 2010.
 
===Iran===
''Main article:'' [[Demographics of Iran]]
 
The Statistical Center of Iran carried out nationwide population and housing censuses every 10 years, the last of which occurred in 2006 (1385 [[Iranian calendar|AP]]). In the Islamic Republic of Iran, based on Article 4 of the Act of the Statistical Center of Iran (SCI), the census shall be implemented once every 10 years according to the Presidential decree. So far there have been 6 incidences of population census in Iran in the years 1956, 1966, 1976, 1986, 1996, and 2006; all taken in accordance with scientific methods. Since 2008 census in iran carries out every 5 year.
 
===Ireland===
The census in [[Republic of Ireland|Ireland]] is carried out by the [[Central Statistics Office (Ireland)|Central Statistics Office]].<ref>{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://www.cso.ie/census/default.htm|Nimeke = CSO Census Home Page|Viitattu = 2011-11-02}}</ref> The census is carried out every five years, with more detailed information collected in years ending in 1 and less in the years ending in 6. The 1976 census was canceled as a cost-saving measure, but a supplementary census was held in 1979 after it became apparent that the 1970s had seen major demographic changes.<ref>{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://www.irisheu-silc.net/census/Historical_Perspective.htm|Nimeke = Census: Historical perspective|Julkaisija = CSO|Viitattu = 2011-11-02}} {{Dead link|date=October 2010|bot=H3llBot}}</ref> The census scheduled for 2001 was postponed until 2002 due to [[2001 United Kingdom foot-and-mouth crisis|the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease]].<ref>{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://www.cso.ie/census/Commentary.htm|Nimeke = Census 2002 Results |year=2002|Julkaisija = CSO|Viitattu = 2011-11-02 |quote=The census originally planned for 29 April 2001 was postponed because of the Foot and Mouth disease situation pertaining at the time.}}</ref>
 
The 2006 census took place on 23 April 2006.<ref>{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://www.cso.ie/census/documents/2006PreliminaryReport.pdf|Nimeke = Census 2006: Preliminary Report|date=July 2006|Julkaisija = CSO|Viitattu = 2011-11-02|format=PDF}}</ref> According to the 2006 form, "any person who fails or refuses to provide information or who knowingly provides false information may be subject to a fine of up to €25,000," under the Central Statistics Act 1993. On the CSO website, instructions for non-[[English Language|English]] speaking residents of Ireland were available. They were mock copies of the census forms, with all headings/questions etc. being translated into a particular language. These were not to be filled out, but were only a guide on how to fill out the English or Irish form. This census also asked two new questions relating to ownership of PCs and [[Internet]] connection.
 
Data from the Census of Ireland, 1901 and [[Census of Ireland, 1911|1911 Census of Ireland]] were made publicly available in 1961,<ref name="oldrecords">{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://www.cso.ie/census/Access_to_Records.htm|Nimeke = Access to old records|Julkaisija = CSO|Viitattu = 2011-11-02}}</ref> and are published online.<ref>{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/|Nimeke = Census of Ireland, Dublin 1911|Julkaisija = National Archives of Ireland|Viitattu = 2011-11-02}}</ref> Subsequent census records will be made publicly available 100 years after collection.<ref name="oldrecords"/> In June 2010, the 1901 census of Ireland became available on the Internet.<ref>{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://www.insideireland.ie/index.cfm/section/news/ext/census001/category/1062 |Nimeke = 1901 Census of Ireland goes online |Julkaisija = Insideireland.ie |date= |Viitattu = 2011-11-02}}</ref>
 
Questions relating to the ability to speak the [[Irish Language]] are included in the census. The figures obtained have been criticised as inflated by [[cognitive bias]]es, such as [[response bias]] or [[wishful thinking]]. The 2006 census included an additional question on frequency of speaking Irish.
 
{{Main|Republic of Ireland Census 2011}}
 
There are some calls for a boycott to the 2011 Census<ref>{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://www.thejournal.ie/census-2011-operators-abu-ghraib-caci-2011-03/|Nimeke = The Journel.ie: CSO calls criticism of Census 2011 contractor "irresponsible"|Viitattu = 2011-11-02}}</ref> as the Irish Central Statistics Office (CSO) has outsourced the printing, hardware, software and related technical support to [[CACI]] (formerly Consolidated Analysis Center, Incorporated). CACI employees were accused of human rights abuses, but have not been found guilty. This may be due to the fact that they have been ruled to have "government contractor immunity" by the US courts.<ref>{{cite news|Osoite = http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/mar/06/scotland-census-abu-ghraib|Nimeke = Public urged to boycott census over contractor's alleged torture link|Viitattu = 2011-11-02 | location=London|work=The Guardian|first=Billy|last=Briggs|date=2011-03-06}}</ref> CACI say: "We remain proud of our work in Iraq and our other efforts to help in the war against terrorism.".<ref>{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://www.caci.com/iraq/iraq_news.shtml|Nimeke = The Truth Will Out|Viitattu = 2011-11-02}}</ref> On foot of concerns that this may effect the 2011 Census, the CSO released a press statement that CACI will advise on software but cannot access any basic census data.<ref>{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://www.census.ie/_uploads/documents/Press_Releases/CSO_Statement_CSO_reassures_public_Your_census_return_is_confidential.doc|Nimeke = CSO reassures public: Your census return is confidential|}}</ref>
 
There have also been two campaigns asking people to consider how they answer the question on religion.<ref>http://www.atheist.ie/2011/01/be-honest-about-religion-in-the-irish-census-on-sunday-10-april/</ref><ref>http://www.humanism.ie/website/campaigns/census-campaign</ref><ref>http://www.thejournal.ie/atheists-kick-off-%E2%80%98honest-to-godless%E2%80%99-census-campaign-2011-01/</ref><ref>http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/opinion/2011/0329/1224293298294.html</ref> As with the question relating to the Irish language, the accuracy of the figures for religious membership have been questioned.
 
The 2011 Irish Census was conducted on 10 April 2011.<ref>{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://www.cso.ie/census/default.htm|Nimeke = CSO Census Home Page|Viitattu = 2011-11-02}}</ref>
 
===Israel===
The first census in the state of [[Israel]] was held in November 1948, six months after its creation, to establish the [[population registry]].<ref name="isr1">{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://www.cbs.gov.il/mifkad/census2008_e.pdf|Nimeke = The 2008 Israel Integrated Census of Population and Housing: Basic conception and procedure|last=Kamen|first= Charles S.|date=February, 2005|Julkaisija = Israel Central Bureau of Statistics|Viitattu = 2011-11-02 |format=PDF |page=1}}</ref> Subsequent censuses were conducted by the [[Israel Central Bureau of Statistics]] (ICBS) in 1961, 1972, 1983 and 1995.<ref name="isr1"/> In these, 20% of households completed a detailed survey and the remainder a shorter questionnaire.<ref name="isr1"/> There is no legal requirement to hold a census within a given interval; in practice, the ICBS requests and the government decides.<ref name="isr1"/> The next Census to be held was postponed from 2006 to late 2008/early 2009.<ref name="isr1"/> Only the detailed survey of 20% will be carried out, as a cost-saving measure.<ref name="isr1"/>
 
===Italy===
The census in [[Italy]] is carried out by [[Istituto Nazionale di Statistica|ISTAT]] every [[decennial|10 years]]. The last five were in 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001 and 2011.
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===Itävalta===
[[Itävalta|Itävallassa]] väestönlaskennat suorittaa Itävallan tilastokeskus. Sellainen pannaan toimeen joka kymmenes vuosi, viimeksi 9. elokuuta 2011.
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===Japan===
{{Main|Demographics of Japan}}
[[Japan]] collects census information every five years. The exercise is conducted by the Statistics Bureau of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. October 1, 2010 is Population Census Day.<ref>{{Verkkoviite
| title = Population Census 2010
| publisher = Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications
| url = http://www.stat.go.jp/data/kokusei/2010/special/english/index.htm
| year = 2010
}}</ref>
 
The census-form solicits information on name, gender, relationship to head of household, year and month of birth, marital status, nationality, number of members of household, type and nature of dwelling, floor area of dwelling, number of hours worked during the week prior to October 1, employment status, name of employer and type of business, and kind of work.
 
Regardless of nationality, all residents in Japan are required to complete the census form. Census form is only written in Japanese, but translation is available upon request in 27 different languages.<ref name="japan.001">[http://www.city.setagaya.tokyo.jp/toukei/gaikokugo/English.pdf ]{{dead link|date=November 2010}}</ref> Online census is only available in Japanese.
 
All information collected by census is confidential and protected by Statistics Act. Information provided by census can never be used for any investigation purposes such as immigration control, police investigation, tax collections and so on.<ref name="japan.001" /> After the census, all forms are destroyed and recycled.
 
In [[Tokyo]], people can choose to answer the census questions by filling out the paper form, or they can choose to answer census questions online. Unique ID and password are provided with the census form. The online census form is only available for residents of Tokyo. This is because a high concentration of people in Tokyo are living in [[apartment buildings]] or [[gated communities]], which restricts the access of census workers.
<gallery>
<!-- Deleted image removed: File:CensusSide1.png|Explanation of census form, side 1 -->
<!-- Deleted image removed: File:CensusSide2.png|Explanation of census form, side 2 -->
</gallery>
 
===Jordan===
The first population census after the independence in 1946 was taken in 1952. It did only count the number of people in the households and could therefore be considered only to be a housing census. The first real complete census was taken in 1961. The following censuses have been taken in 1979, 1994 and 2004. The distribution of [[Palestinians]] and [[Jordanians]] within the population has been a politically sensitive issue since the [[Six-Day war]] in 1967.
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===Kanada===
[[Kanada]]ssa väestönlaskennat suorittaa [[Statistics Canada]]. Ensimmäisen väestönlaskennan pani vuonna 1666 toimeen ranskalainen intendentti [[Jean Talon]] selvittääkseen silloisen [[Uusi Ranska|Uuden Ranskan]] väkiluvun. Samaa menetelmää ja saatuja tietoja käytettiin hyväksi, kun Kanada muodostetiin 201 vuotta myöhemmin. Kanadan eri [[Kanadan provinssit|provinsseissa]] suoritettiin väestönlaskentoja 1800-luvulla ja aikaisemmin. Vuonna 1871 väestönlaskenta suoritettiin [[Nova Scotia]]n, [[Ontario]]n, [[New Brunswick]]in ja [[Quebec]]in provinsseissa.
 
Nykyään Kanadassa suoritetaan väestönlaskenta joka kymmenes vuosi, viimeksi 2011. Vuosikymmenen puolivälissä (1976, 1986, 1996 jne) pidettävistä väestönlaskennoista käytetään termiä ''quinquennial census'', muista termiä ''decennial census''. Ensimmäinen ''quincennial census'' pidettiin vuonna 1956.
 
Vuoden 2006 väestönlaskennassa oli ensimmäisen kerran mahdollista vastata kysymyksiin verkon välityksellä. Vaihtoehtoisesti oli edelleen mahdollista lähettää tiedot maksutta postitse tai puhelimitse.
 
[[Alberta]]n provinssissa kunnallishallintolain ({{k-en|Municipal Government Act (MGA)}} 57. pykälä oikeuttaa kunnat panemaan toimeen oman väestönlaskentansa minä vuonna tahansa.<ref>{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://www.qp.alberta.ca/574.cfm?page=m26.cfm&leg_type=Acts&isbncln=9780779745739 |Nimeke = Municipal Government Act (MGA) |Julkaisija = Qp.alberta.ca |date=2006-12-28 |Viitattu=2011-11-02}}</ref>
 
===Kenia===
[[Kenia]]ssa ensimmäinen väestönlaskenta suoritettiin vuonna 1948, jolloin maa oli vielä brittiläinen [[siirtomaa]]. Vuodesta 1969 lähtien väestönlaskenta on suoritettu joka kymmenes vuosi, viimeksi 2009. Kenia on ensimmäinen Afrikan maa, jossa väestönlaskenta saatiin valmiiksi yhden vuoden kuluessa.<ref>[http://www.kbc.co.ke/story.asp?ID=59420 Census kicks off]. [[Kenya Broadcasting Corporation]]. August 24, 2009.</ref>
 
===Kiina===
Kiinassa yleinen väestön­laskenta on suoritettu vuosina 1913 ja 1944 sekä [[Kiinan kansantasavalta|Kiinan kansan­tasa­vallan]] aikana vuosina 1953, 1964, 1982, 1990, 2000 ja 2011.<ref>{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjgb/rkpcgb/index.htm |Nimeke = 中华人民共和国国家统计局 >> 人口普查公报 |Julkaisija = Stats.gov.cn |date= }} {{zh icon}}</ref> Nämä ovat olleet maailman suurimpia väestön­laskentoja, joissa on yritetty laskea jokainen mies, nainen ja lapsi maailman runsas­väkisimmässä maassa. Vuosina 2000 ja 2010 laskentojen suorittamiseen osallistui noin kuusi miljoonaa virkailijaa.
 
Kansallisten väestönlaskentojen välillä on yhtä prosenttia väestöstä koskeva tutkimus suoritettu vuosina 1987, 1994 ja 2005 sekä 0,1 prosenttia koskeva tutkimus vuodesta 2000 lähtien vuosittain.<ref>{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjdt/gjtjjdt/t20091221_402608717.htm |Nimeke = 李克强主持召开人口普查领导小组会议时强调 把握我国基本国情 促进可持续发展 |Julkaisija = Stats.gov.cn |date=2009-12-21 }}</ref>
 
Kansallisia maataloutta, taloutta ja teollisuutta koskevia laskentoja on alettu suoritettu säännöllisesti, ensimmäisen kerran vuonna 2004 ja toisen kerran 2008.<ref>{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://www.stats.gov.cn/was40/gjtjj_en_detail.jsp?channelid=4920&record=1 |Nimeke = Communiqué on Major Data of the Second National Economic Census (No.1) |Julkaisija = Stats.gov.cn |date=2009-12-25 |Viitattu = 2011-11-02}}</ref>
 
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===Kosovo===
[[Kosovo]], administrated by the [[UN]] since 1999, declared independence in 2008. Kosovo government is planning a general population census for 2011.<ref>{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://www.kosovotimes.net/flash-news/642-republic-of-kosovo-sets-the-date-for-its-first-census.html |Nimeke = Republic of Kosovo sets the date for its first census |Julkaisija = Kosovotimes.net |date= |Viitattu = 2011-11-02}}</ref> The first census was conducted in the [[Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes]] in 1921.
-->
===Kroatia===
[[Kroatia]]ssa väestön­laskenta suoritetaan joka kymmenes vuosi, viimeksi huhti­kuussa 2011. Ensimmäisen kerran sellainen suoritettiin vunna 1857, jolloin nykyinen Kroatia oli osa [[Itävalta|Itä­vallan]] keisari­kuntaa.
 
===Latvia===
[[Latvia]]ssa väestönlaskenta suoritettiin viimeksi vuonna 2011. Aikaisemmin sellainen oli suoritettu seitsemän kertaa, useimmat niistä [[Latvian sosialistinen neuvostotasavalta|neuvostovallan]] aikana. Nykyään väestönlaskennat panee toimeen tilastollinen keskusvirasto ''Centrālā Statistikas Pārvalde''.
 
===Libanon===
[[Libanon]]issa ei ole pidetty väestönlaskentaa vuoden 1932 jälkeen.<ref name="AJECensus">al-Issawi, Omar (June 4, 2009). [http://english.aljazeera.net/focus/2009/05/2009527115531294628.html Lebanon's Palestinian refugees]. [[Al Jazeera]].</ref> Silloin maan väkiluku oli 861&nbsp;399.<ref>Rolland, John C. (2003). ''Lebanon: current issues and background." Nova Publishers. p. 65.</ref> Myöhemmin maan väkiluku on yritetty arvioida useita kertoja: vuonna 1956 sen arveltiin olevan 1&nbsp;411&nbsp;416, joista 54&nbsp;% kristittyjä ja 44&nbsp;% muslimeja. Myöhemmät yritykset väestönlaskentojen suorittamiseksi ovat kaatuneet monien konfliktien vuoksi, joita maassa esiinty varsinkin 1970- ja 1980-luvuilla. Conducting a census since then has been complicated by various conflicts in the 1970s and 1980s,<ref>[http://countrystudies.us/lebanon/34.htm Lebanon]. Country studies.</ref> sekä myös uskonnollisten kiistojen arkaluontoisuuden vuoksi.<ref name="AJECensus" />
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===Malaysia===
The census in [[Malaysia]] is carried out every 10 years, like many nations, since 1960 (with the exception of the fourth census, which was carried out in 1991). The next census will be carried out from July 6 to August 22, 2010, the most recent was in 2000.
 
===Macedonia===
The foundation of the Republic of Macedonia followed the breakup of the former Yugoslav Republic in 1991. The first population and housing census was taken in the summer 1994. The second census was taken in the autumn 2002. Both censuses were observed by international experts due to the sensitive issue regarding the ethnic distribution (Macedonian vs Albanian population).
 
===Mauritius===
Population and housing censuses for Mauritius was collected in 1972, 1983, and 2000; although respondents were asked to identify their race/ethnic origin in the 1972 census, this question was dropped from the following censuses because "the government felt that it was a divisive question".<ref>[http://www.statssa.gov.za/asc/WebsiteReports/Mauritius.pdf "2010 Round of Censuses: Learning from the 2000 Round Country position: Mauritius February 2006"] . Retrieved 3 April 2009.</ref> The Statistics Act of 2000 directed that all official censuses be conducted by the Central Statistics Office of Mauritius, as well as serve as the central depository for this information.<ref>[http://www.gov.mu/portal/site/cso/menuitem.922af73ab9a84a9e965c062ca0208a0c/ "Central Statistics Office: The Statistics Act 2000"].</ref>
 
===Mexico===
Population censuses are taken every 10th year in [[Mexico]]. The latest have been in 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010. After 1990 the Mexican census has been taken every 5 years.
 
===Mozambique===
The first census was taken in 1980. The second in 1997. The third was taken 1–14 August 2007.
 
===Netherlands===
The first census in the [[Netherlands]] was conducted in 1795, and the last in 1971. A law was produced on April 22, 1879, ordering a census to be conducted every ten years.
 
The census that was planned for 1981 was postponed and later cancelled. A call for privacy was responsible for the cancellation of any further census since 1991. Censuses are being conducted by the [[Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek]] since 1899. The censuses today are mostly (population, fiscal) register based, combined with surveying.
 
===New Zealand===
The census in [[New Zealand]] is carried out by [[Statistics New Zealand]] (Tatauranga Aotearoa), on each year ending in a 6 or a 1 (every five years). The last was on 7 March 2006. For the 2006 Census of New Zealand, respondents could choose to complete their census questionnaire online. See [[New Zealand Census of Population and Dwellings]]. The Census scheduled for 8 March 2011 was cancelled due to the [[February 2011 Christchurch earthquake]].<ref>{{Verkkoviite|Nimeke = Census cancelled due to quake|Osoite = http://www.stuff.co.nz/national/christchurch-earthquake/4703612/Census-cancelled-due-to-quake|Julkaisija = Fairfax Media (Stuff.co.nz)|Viitattu = 2011-11-02}}</ref> It has been announced that the cancelled census will be held in 2013. It is not known whether the following census will be held in 2016, or whether the five-year time-frame will start anew.
 
===Nepal===
Population censuses are taken every tenth year in [[Nepal]]. The first was in 1911. The latest were in 1981, 1991 and 2001 (the tenth census).Now it is processing for another census in Nepal in 2011 A.D
 
===Nigeria===
Population censuses have been taken in [[Nigeria]] during [[Colonialism|colonial]] time in 1866, 1871, 1896, 1901, 1911, 1921 and 1952. The censuses covered only the southern part of the country except for the 1952 census which was country wide, and the censuses before 1921 were based on administrative estimates rather than on an actual enumeration.
 
Censuses during the independence were taken 1963, 1973, 1991 and 2006. The results from 1973 and 2006 were highly disputed. The preliminary results for 2006 indicates a population of 140,000,000. 700,000 enumerators were engaged in this operation.
 
===Norway===
The two first male censuses was conducted during the 1660s and 1701.<ref>{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://www.rhd.uit.no/nhdc/census.html#male |Nimeke = Documenting the Norwegian Censuses: The male censuses of the 1660s and 1701 |Julkaisija = Rhd.uit.no |date=2004-11-10 |Viitattu = 2011-11-02}}</ref> Later statistical censuses were held in 1769, 1815, 1835, 1845, and 1855. Norway's first nominative, complete census was taken in 1801, when Norway still was ruled by the Oldenburg dynasty of [[Denmark-Norway]]. The scope of the census followed the de jure principle, so military persons should be included as well as foreigners if they were residents. The 1801, 1865, 1900 and 1910 censuses are transcribed and made searchable on the internet.<ref>{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://digitalarkivet.no/cgi-win/WebFront.exe?slag=vis&tekst=meldingar&spraak=e |Nimeke = The Digital Archives |Julkaisija = Regional State Archives in Bergen |date= |Viitattu = 2011-11-02}}</ref> The census records are made publicly available when 100 years have passed. Since 1900, a census has been conducted every ten years. (However, the 1940 census was postponed to 1946, and the census after 1990 came in 2001.) Since 2001 the population census has been combined with the housing statistics.<ref>{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://www.ssb.no/fob_en/ |Nimeke = Population and Housing Census 2001 |language={{no icon}} |Julkaisija = Ssb.no |date= |Viitattu = 2011-11-02}}</ref> The 2001 questionnaire only asked about households and who was living in them, while no questionnaires will be mailed out for the 2011 census, since the administrative data on households is sufficient.<ref>{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://www.ssb.no/magasinet/blandet/art-2010-10-15-01.html|Nimeke = Datainnsamling: Folketellingen som forsvant?|date=15 October 2010|Julkaisija = Statistisk sentralbyrå|language=Norwegian|Viitattu = 2011-11-02}}</ref>
 
===Oman===
Censuses have been taken in the [[Sultanate of Oman]] in 1993 and 2003.
 
===Pakistan===
The first [[Pakistan]]i census after the proclamation of independence was conducted in 1951. It was decreed that censuses have to be carried out once in 10 years. The second census was conducted in 1961. However the third one was conducted in 1972 because of [[Bangladesh Liberation War]]. The fourth census was held in 1981.The fifth census was delayed to March 1998. The sixth census of Pakistan is planned in October 2008.<ref>[http://www.dawn.com/2008/07/19/local15.htm Pakistan Census process to begin in October, 2008].</ref>
But due to some internal problems, the census delayed till start of 2011 and its first phase was started in April allover the country.<ref>http://www.thenewstribe.com/2011/04/16/sindh-approaches-centre-to-extend-first-phase-of-census/</ref>
 
===Peru===
{{Main|Peru Census}}
The first census in [[Peru]] was carried out in 1836. The 11th and latest one was the [[Peru 2007 Census|2007 Census]] and was carried out by [[Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática]] in August 2007.
 
===Philippines===
{{Main|Philippines census}}
The census of the [[Philippines]] is enumerated every 5 years (beginning on 1960, except in 2005 where it was moved to 2007 due to budgetary constraints) and the results are used to allocate Congressional seats (congressional apportionment) and government program funding.
 
The census is performed by the Philippines' [[National Statistics Office (Philippines)|National Statistics Office]]. The first official census in the Philippines was carried out by the Spanish government pursuant to a royal decree calling for the counting of persons living as of the midnight of December 31, 1877. The first door-to-door census was conducted in 1903 to fulfill Public Act 467 which was approved by the U.S. Congress in July 1902. The last national census was held in 2007 and the next census is scheduled for 2010. For years between the censuses, the NSO issues estimates made using surveys and statistical models.
 
===Poland===
{{Main|Census in Poland}}
The census in [[Poland]] is carried out by [[GUS (Poland)|GUS]] every circa [[decennial|10 years]]. The [[Polish census of 2002|last one]] occurred in 2002 between May 21 and June 8. During the national census in 2003 the following censuses were conducted at the same time: National Population and Housing Census and National Agricultural Census.
 
===Portugal===
The first census in Portugal was carried out in 1864. The census in [[Portugal]] is carried out by [[Instituto Nacional de Estatística]] (INE) every [[decennial|10 years]]. A census was taken in 2001 and in March and April 2011.
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===Ranska===
[[Ranska]]ssa väestönlaskennat suorittaa [[INSEE]]. Vuodesta 2004 lähtien osittainen laskenta on suoritettu joka vuosi, ja tulokset julkaistaan keskimäärin joka viides vuosi.
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===Romania===
{{Main|Demographic history of Romania}}
The first census in [[Romania]] was carried out in 1859. It is now carried out every ten years by the [[Institutul Naţional de Statistică]] (INSSE). The last census was in 2011.<ref>[http://www.suceava-news.ro/guvern/recensamantul_populatiei_va_avea_loc_in_2011/ The next census will take place in 2011].</ref>
 
===Russia and USSR===
In [[Russia]], the first census of the tax-payers was made in 1722-1723 by the order of [[Peter the Great]] (only men were counted), and was ordered to be repeated every twenty years. The only complete [[Russian Empire Census]] was carried out in 1897. All-Union Population Censuses were carried out in the [[Soviet Union|USSR]] (which included [[Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic|RSFSR]] and the other republics) in 1920 (urban only), [[First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union|1926]], 1937, 1939, 1959, 1970, 1979, and [[Soviet Census (1989)|1989]]. The first post-Soviet [[Russian Census (2002)|Russian Census]] was carried out in 2002, followed by the [[Russian Census (2010)|2010 Census]]. Currently, the census is the responsibility of the [[Goskomstat|Federal State Statistics Service]].
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===Saksa===
Euroopan ensimmäinen järjestelmällinen väestön­laskenta suoritettiin vuonna 1719 [[Preussi]]ssa, joka tuolloin käsitti suunnilleen nykyisen pohjois-[[Saksa]]n ja länsi-Puolan.
 
Ensimmäinen koko [[Saksan keisarikunta]]a koskeva väestön­laskenta suoritettiin vuonna 1895. Yritykset suorittaa väestön­laskenta [[Saksan liittotasavalta|Saksan liitto­tasa­vallassa]] 1980-luvulla epä­onnistuivat, koska osa lomakkeissa esitetyistä kysymyksistä oli luonteeltaan hyvin henkilö­­kohtaisia, minkä vuoksi kansalaiset järjestivät kampanjoita laskennan [[boikotti|boikotoimiseksi]]. Saksan perustus­laki­tuomio­istuin keskeyttikin väestön­laskennat vuosina 1980 ja 1983. Viimeksi sellainen suoritettiin vuonna 1987. Tämän jälkeen Saksassa on käytetty [[otanta]]a muihin tilastollisiin menetelmiin yhdistettynä varsinaisen väestön­laskennan sijasta.
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===Saudi Arabia===
Population censuses have been taken in Saudi Arabia in 1962/63 (incomplete), 1974 (complete but not reliable), 1992, 2004 and 2010. An agriculture census was taken in 1999.
 
===Serbia===
{{main|Census in Serbia}}
The census ordinarily takes place every 10 years. The last census was in 2002 (although having been planned for 2001), the previous one was in 1991 and the next is planned for 2011. The censuses before were organized in 1981, 1971, 1961, 1953 and 1948, during [[Communist Yugoslavia]]. During the [[Kingdom of Yugoslavia]], censuses were conducted in 1931 and 1921; the census in 1941 was never conducted due to the outbreak of WWII.
 
The independent [[Princedom of Serbia]], had conducted the first population census in 1834; the subsequent censuses were conducted in 1841, 1843, 1846, 1850, 1854, 1859, 1863 and 1866 and 1874. During the era [[Kingdom of Serbia]], six censuses were conducted starting on 1884 and the last one being in 1910. And then the frequent wars had prevented organizing any census prior to the Yugoslav one in 1921.
 
For the portions of Serbia ruled by [[Austria-Hungary]] until 1918, there were a total of 5 Austro-Hungarian censuses - 1910, 1900, 1890, 1880 and 1869, immediately after the Dual Monarchy's constitution.
 
===Slovakia===
First modern census in the area of today's [[Slovakia]] was taken in 1869. Today, the census is conducted every 10 years by the Statistical Office of Slovak Republic. Last census was in May 2011.
 
===Slovenia===
The first census of modern [[Slovenia]] was carried in 1991, after independence had been declared. The [[Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia]] conducted the second census in 2002. Further censuses will be carried out in 2011 and then every 10 years.<ref>http://www.stat.si/popis2011/eng/Default.aspx?lang=eng</ref>
 
===South Africa===
The first census of [[South Africa]] was taken in 1911. Several enumerations have occurred since then,<ref>[http://countrystudies.us/south-africa/44.htm South Africa - Population].</ref> with the most recent two being carried out by [[Statistics South Africa]] in 1996 and [[South African National Census of 2001|2001]]. A census is currently being undertaken from 10 October to 31 October, 2011<ref>http://www.statssa.gov.za/census2011/</ref>, with results expected to be released in March 2013.<ref>http://www.statssa.gov.za/census2011/faq.asp</ref>
 
===Spain===
The census in [[Spain]] is carried out by [[INE (Spain)|INE]] every [[decennial|10 years]]. Although there has been an old tradition and like for making census in Spain, the oldest ones dating back to the 12th century (by [[Alfonso VII]] of the [[Kingdom of Castile]]), the first modern census was carried out in 1768 by [[Conde de aranda|Conde de Aranda]], under the reign of [[Charles III of Spain|Carlos III]]. The last four were in 1971, 1981, 1991, and 2001.
 
===Sri Lanka===
The census in [[Sri Lanka]] is carried out by the [[Department of Census and Statistics]] every [[decennial|10 years]], with the next one being planned for 2011.<ref>{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://www.sundayobserver.lk/2010/05/16/new30.asp |Nimeke = Sri Lanka News |Julkaisija = Sundayobserver.lk |date=2010-05-16 |Viitattu = 2011-11-02}}</ref> The 2011 one being the first post-war census in three decades. The census will cover all [[Grama Niladhari]] (GN) divisions of the country.The first scientific census in Sri Lanka was conducted on 27 March 1871. The last four were in 1963, 1971, 1981 and 2001 with a census estimate in 1989. The 2001 census was only carried out in 18 [[Districts of Sri Lanka|Districts]] due to the [[Sri Lankan Civil War]].
 
===Sudan===
Population censuses have been carried out in [[Sudan]] in 1955/56, 1973 (national), 1983 (national) and 1993 (only north). A census was conduced in April 2008. Some areas were difficult to measure (e.g. Darfur, Juba and Malakal)
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===Suomi===
Vuonna 1938 säädetyn lain mukaan Suomessa määrättiin suoritettavaksi kymmenen vuoden välein yleinen väestönlaskenta ja siihen liittyvä asunto- ja kiinteistö­laskenta.<ref name=Fokus>{{kirjaviite | Nimeke = Otavan iso Fokus, 7. osa (Sv-Öö) | Sivu = 4580, art. Väestönlaskenta | Julkaisija = Otava | Vuosi = 1974 | Tunniste = ISBN 951-1-01521-4}}</ref> Ensimmäinen tällainen laskenta oli tarkoitus tehdä vuonna 1940, mutta sodan vuoksi sitä ei tuolloin tehty. Niinpä ensimmäinen yleinen väestön­laskenta suoritettiin vasta vuoden 1950 lopussa.<ref name=Fokus />
 
 
Henkikirjoitus suoritettiin vuosittain tammikuun alussa vuoteen 1991 saakka<ref name=Suursanakirja />, ja tällöin kiinteistön omistajan tuli ilmoittaa kaikki asukkaat. Nykyään [[muuttoilmoitus]]järjestelmä hoitaa samat tehtävät.
 
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===Sweden===
{{see also|Population registration in Sweden}}
The first population census in [[Sweden]] was carried out in 1749. The last population and housing census was carried out in 1990. It is planned to conduct population and housing censuses based on registers in the future.
 
===Switzerland===
{{Main|Swiss census}}
In [[Switzerland]], the ''Federal Population Census'' ({{lang-de|Eidgenössische Volkszählung}}, {{lang-fr|Recensement fédéral de la population}}, {{lang-it|Censimento federale della popolazione}}, {{lang-rm|Dumbraziun federala dal pievel}}) has been carried out every 10 years starting in 1850. The census was initiated by [[Swiss Federal Council|Federal Councillor]] [[Stefano Franscini]], who evaluated the data of the first census all by himself after Parliament failed to provide the necessary funds.<ref>[http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/en/index/infothek/erhebungen__quellen/blank/blank/vz/geschichte.html History of the Federal Population Census], Swiss Federal Statistical Office. Retrieved October 2007.</ref> The census is now being conducted by the [[Federal Statistical Office (Switzerland)|Swiss Federal Statistical Office]].
 
Data being collected include population data (citizenship, place of residence, place of birth, position in household, number of children, religion, languages, education, profession, place of work, etc.), household data (number of individuals living in the household, etc.), accommodation data (surface area, amount of rent paid, etc.) and building data (geo[[coordinate]]s, time of construction, number of floors, etc.). Participation is compulsory and reached 99.87% of the population in 2000.<ref>[http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/en/index/infothek/erhebungen__quellen/blank/blank/vz/uebersicht.html Overview of the Federal Population Census], Swiss Federal Statistical Office. Retrieved October 2007.</ref>
 
Starting in 2010, the census will cease to be conducted through written questionnaires distributed nationwide. Instead, data in existing population registers will be used. That data will be supplemented with a biannual questionnaire sample of 200,000 people as well as regular microcensuses.
 
===Syria===
The first population census in Syria was taken by the French Mandatory Regime in 1921-22. This is however not considered reliable. Censuses during independence have been taken 1947, 1960 (the first comprehensive demographic investigation), 1970, 1976 (a sample census), 1981, 1994 and 2004 and the next would be taken at 2017.
 
===Taiwan===
The first census in [[Taiwan]] was conducted in 1905, while [[Taiwan under Japanese rule|Taiwan was under Japanese rule]].<ref>[http://www.ind.org.tw/LIT_13/20010312.pdf The Modernization of Taiwan].</ref>
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===Tanska===
 
[[Tanska]]n ensimmäinen väestönlaskenta suoritettiin vuosina 1700-1701, ja siinä kerättiin tietoa aikuisista miehistä. Vain noin puolet sen tuloksista on säilynyt. Koululaiset laskettiin 1730-luvulla.
 
Näiden varhaisten yritysten jälkeen suoritettiin vuonna 1769 ensimmäinen väestönlaskenta, jossa kerättiin [[Tanska-Norja]]n koko väestöstä, myös naisista ja lapsista, joista aikaisemmin oli laskettu vain lukumäärä.<ref>[http://www.rhd.uit.no/census/ft1769.html Census 1769].</ref> Valtakunnassa oli sillin 797&nbsp;584 kansalaista. [[Georg Christian Oeder]] suoritti vuonna 1771 tilastollisen laskennan, joka käsitti [[Kööpenhamina]]n, [[Sjælland]]in, [[Møn]]in, and [[Bornholm]]in.
 
Tämän jälkeen väestönlaskennat suoritettiin vuosina 1787, 1801 ja 1834. Vuosien 1840 ja 1860 välillä sellainen suoritettiin joka viides vuosi, sen jälkeen joka kymmenes vuosi vuoteen 1980 saakka. Pelkästään Kööpenhaminaa koskeva väestönlaskenta suoritettiin vuosina 1885 ja 1895.
 
1900-luvulla väestönlaskenta suoritettiin 1901-1921 joka viides vuosi, vuodesta 1930 lähtien joka kymmenes vuosi. Viimeinen perinteinen väestönlaskenta suoritettiin vuonna 1970.
 
Väestörekisterihin perustuva rajoitettu laskenta suoritettiin vuonna 1976. Vuodesta 1981 lähtien on joka vuosi muodostettu rekisterien perusteella tilasto, joka vastaa väestön- ja asutuslaskentaa. Tanska oli ensimmäinen maa, jossa tällaiset muodostettiin rekisterien perusteella. Tärkeimmät rekisterit ovat väestörekisteri (''Det Centrale Personregister''), rakennus- ja asutusrekisteri sekä yritysrekisteri. Nämä tilastot laatii [[Statistics Denmark]]. Tilastot on luettavissa myös Internetissä [[Statbank Denmark]]in sivuilla.<ref>{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://www.statbank.dk |Nimeke = Statbank Denmark |Julkaisija = Statbank.dk |date= |Viitattu = 2011-11-02}}</ref>
 
Osia Tanskan väestötiedoista löytyy ''Dansk Demografisk Database'' -nimisestä tietokannasta,<ref>{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://ddd.dda.dk/ |Nimeke = Dansk Demografisk Database |Julkaisija = Ddd.dda.dk |date= |Viitattu = 2011-11-02}}</ref> sekä myös skannattuina Arkivalier Online -sivustosta.<ref>{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://www.arkivalieronline.dk/ |Nimeke = Arkivalier Online |Julkaisija = Arkivalieronline.dk |date= |Viitattu = 2011-11-02}}</ref>
 
===Tšekki===
[[Tšekki|Tšekissä]] väestönlaskenta suoritetaan joka kymmenes vuosi, viimeksi 2011.<ref>{{verkkoviite | Osoite = http://ro.utia.cas.cz/census | Nimeke = Census interactive model based software, väestönlaskennan tulokset}}</ref> Aikaisemmat väestönlaskennat olivat vuosina 1869, 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910, 1921, 1930, 1950, 1961, 1970, 1980, 1991 ja 2001.
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===Turkey===
The [[Turkey|Turkish]] census is run by the [[Turkish Statistical Institute]]. The first census in [[Turkey]] was conducted in 1927. After 1935, it took place every 5 years until 1990. Now, the census takes place every 10 years. The last census was in 2000. It can be noted that the census enumeration takes place on one single day in Turkey (in other countries it takes 1–2 weeks). This required some 900,000 enumerators in 2000. The 15th census based on improved geographical information systems is planned for 2010.
 
A census was taken in the [[Ottoman Empire]] 1831-38 by [[Sultan Mahmud II]] (1808–1839) as a part of the reform movement [[Tanzimat]]. [[Christian]] and [[Jewish]] men were counted but the female population was excluded.
 
===Uganda===
The first censuses in [[Uganda]] were taken in 1911, 1921 and 1931. It was done in a rather primitive way. The [[enumeration]] unit was 'huts' and not individuals. More scientific censuses were taken 1948 and 1959 where the enumeration unit was persons. The census was however divided into two separate enumerations, one for Africans, and one for the non-African population.
The censuses during independence 1969, 1980, 1991 were taken jointly for all races. The censuses 1980 and 1991 included housing information and in addition a larger questionnaire for a sample of the population. However, the questionnaires for the 1980 were lost and only provisional figures are available from this census.
 
The census in 2002 involved some 50,000 enumerators and supervisors. It covered several topics including: population and housing; agriculture; and Micro- and small Enterprises administered at individual/household level. The Preliminary Results were published two weeks after the enumeration. The Final Results were released in March
2005, while the analytical findings and the district level results were scheduled to be released in the second quarter of 2006.<ref>[http://www.statssa.gov.za/asc/WebsiteReports/Uganda.pdf "Country submission for Uganda: The 2010 World Programme on Population and Housing Censuses"], Africa Symposium on the 2010 Round of Population and Housing Censuses (Cape Town, South Africa), 30 January - 2 February 2006. Retrieved 3 April 2009.</ref>
 
===Ukraine===
The first post-Soviet [[Ukrainian Census (2001)|Ukrainian Census]] was carried out by State Statistics Committee of Ukraine in 2001, 12 years after the last All-Union census in 1989.<ref>{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://www.ukrcensus.gov.ua/eng/ |Nimeke = All-Ukrainian population census |Julkaisija = Ukrcensus.gov.ua |date= |Viitattu = 2011-11-02}}</ref>
 
===United Kingdom===
{{Main|Census in the United Kingdom}}
 
In the 7th century, [[Dál Riata]] was the first territory in what is now the UK to conduct a census. The [[Domesday Book]] of 1086 in England contained listings of households but its coverage was not complete and its intent was not the same as modern censuses.
 
Following the influence of [[Malthus]] and concerns stemming from his ''An Essay On The Principle Of Population'' the UK census as we know it today started in 1801. The census has been conducted every ten years since 1801 and most recently in 2011.
 
The first four censuses (1801–1831) were mainly headcounts and contained little personal information. The 1841 Census, conducted by the General Register Office, was the first to record the names of everyone in a household or institution. From 1851 onwards the census shows the stated age and relationship to the head of household for each individual. Because of [[World War II]], there was no census in 1941. The actual census dates were 1841-06-06, 1851-03-30, 1861-04-07, 1871-04-02, 1881-04-03, 1891-04-05, 1901-03-31, 1911-04-02
 
The census of England & Wales is undertaken for the government by the [[Office for National Statistics]] (ONS). The General Register Office for Scotland (GROS) conducts its own census, while the census in Northern Ireland is carried out by the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA). Public access to the census returns is restricted under the terms of the 100-year rule; the most recent returns made available to researchers are those of the 1911 Census for England and Wales. The Scottish 1911 census will be available in 2011.
 
All of the British censuses from 1841-1911 have been transcribed and indexed and are available online, although GROS will not be releasing the Scottish 1911 returns until 2011.
 
The [[United Kingdom Census 2011]] took place on 27 March 2011.<ref>[http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/guide-method/census/2011/index.html National Statistics Website].</ref>
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===Viro===
[[Viro]]ssa on suoritettu yleinen väestönlaskenta vuosina 1881, 1897, 1922, 1934, 1959, 1970, 1979, 1989 ja 2000.<ref>[http://www.stat.ee/26383 Censuses in Estonia].</ref> Ne suorittaa [[Statistics Estonia]].<ref>{{Verkkoviite|Osoite = http://www.stat.ee/censuses |Nimeke = Statistics Estonia |Julkaisija = Stat.ee |date=2010-07-19 |Viitattu = 2011-11-02}}</ref>
 
===Yhdysvallat===
[[Yhdysvaltain perustuslaki]] säätää väestönlaskennan suoritettavaksi kymmenen vuoden välein. Ensimmäisen kerran väestönlaskenta suoritettiin 1790. Väestönlaskennan perusteella määritetään, kuinka monta kansanedustajaa kustakin [[Yhdysvaltain osavaltiot|osavaltiosta]] valitaan [[Yhdysvaltain kongressi|kongressiin]]. Väestönlaskennasta huolehtiva viranomainen on [[United States Census Bureau|Bureau of the Census]]. <ref>{{Verkkoviite | Viitattu=22.10.2009 | Nimeke=Decennial census | Kieli={{en}} | Osoite=http://factfinder.census.gov/jsp/saff/SAFFInfo.jsp?_pageId=sp4_decennial&_submenuId= | Julkaisija=U.S. Census Bureau | Ajankohta=12.12.2007}}</ref>
 
 
== Aiheesta muualla ==
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[[Luokka:Väestötiede]]
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