Protestantismin edeltäjät

Protestantismin edeltäjät ovat ryhmiä, joilla oli protestanttisia ideoita ennen vuotta 1517. Ennen protestantismia oli monia liikkeitä, joilla oli samanlaisia ajatuksia kuin myöhemmillä uskonpuhdistajilla. [1]

EdeltäjätMuokkaa

  • Jovinianus oli teologi 400-luvulla, hän kritisoi asketismia ja uskoi, että pelastettua ihmistä saatana ei voi koskaan voittaa (Ehdoton pelastusvarmuus).[2]
  • Augustinus: Augustinus oli kirkkoisä, hänen teologiset ajatukset vaikuttivat suoraan myöhempien uskonpuhdistajien ajatuksiin.[3]
  • Ikonoklasmi Bysantin keisarikunnassa: Ikonoklastit halusivat kieltää ikonien ja muiden kuvien käytön.[4] Ikonoklastit vetosivat reformaatiossa bysantiineihin perustellakseen hyökkäystään uskonnollisia kuvia vastaan.[5]
  • Claudius Torinolainen: Claudius oli Torinon piispa 800-luvulla. Ikonoklasminsa takia häntä pidetään monesti protestantismin edeltäjänä.[6]
  • Gottschalk: Gottschalk oli saksilainen teologi 800-luvulla. Gottschalk uskoi, että Jeesus kuoli vain Jumalan valittujen ihmisten puolesta. Hän uskoi myös predestinaatioon.[7][8][9]
  • Kataarit: Kataarit olivat uskonnollinen ryhmä 1000-luvulla .[10] Vaikka he olivat dualisteja, he vastustivat silti katolista kirkkoa, transsubstantiaatioa, kiirastulen ideaa ja rukoilua kuolleille.[11]
  • Patariinit: Patariinit olivat 1000-luvulla Italiassa uskonnollinen ryhmä, joka vastusti katolisen kirkon korruptiota.[12]
  • Tanchelm: Tanchelm oli 1100-luvulla elänyt saarnaaja, joka vastusti katolisen kirkon korruptiota ja transsubstantiaatiota.[12]
  • Pierre Bruysilainen: (1117 – n. 1131) Pierre oli ranskalainen uskonpuhdistaja, joka vastusti lasten kastamista ja oli ikonoklastinen.[13]
  • Henry Lausalainen: Henry Lausalainen saarnasi Ranskassa vastustaen katolisen kirkon rikkauksia.[12]
  • Arnold Brescialainen: Arnold Brescialainen vastusti katolisen kirkon rikkauksia.[12]
  • Valdolaiset: Valdolaiset olivat 1100-luvulla liike, joka vastusti lasten kastamista, aneita ja transsubstantiaatiota.[14][11]
  • Gregorius Riminiläinen: Gregorius oli italialainen teologi, jonka opit vaikuttivat myöhempiin uskonpuhdistajiin reformaatiossa. Hän uskoi predestinaatioon.[15]
  • Strigolnikit: Strigolnikit olivat 1300-luvulla venäläinen liike, jonka jäsenet olivat mahdollisesti ikonien vastaisia ja vastustivat ortodoksista papistoa .[16]
  • Lollardismi: Lollardismi oli 1300-luvulla uskonnollinen liike, joka piti Raamattua tärkeimpänä uskon lähteenä, vastusti paavin valtaa, transsubstantiaatioa ja kiirastulen ideaa.[17]
  • Hussilaiset: Hussilaiset olivat 1400-luvun böömiläinen ryhmä, jonka perusti Jan Hus. Liike sai vaikutteita John Wycliffen kirjoituksista.[18][19]
  • Lorenzo Valla: Lorenzo Valla oli humansti kuka vastusti paavin valtaa 1400-luvulla.[20]
  • Johannes von Goch: Goch väitti, että Raamattu on opin korkein auktoriteetti.[21]
  • Johann Ruchrat von Wesel: Von Wesel vastusti aneita, uskoi, että Raamattu on ainoa luotettava auktoriteetti, hylkäsi paavin auktoriteetin ja uskoi predestinatioon.[22]
  • Johannes Wesseläinen: Johannes Wesseläinen vastusti aneita ja uskoi, että vanhurskaus tulee vain uskon kautta. Hän myös hylkäsi katolisen opin transsubstantiaatiosta.[23]
  • Girolamo Savonarola: Girolamo Savonarola oli italialainen saarnaaja ja uskonpuhdistaja, joka syntyi vuonna 1452 ja kuoli vuonna 1498. Historioitsijat uskovat, että hän vaikutti Lutheriin ja mahdollisesti myös Johannes Calviniin[24]
  • Faber Stapulensis: Faber Stapulensis oli ranskalainen uskonpuhdistaja, hän uskoi ideaan, että vain usko on tarpeeksi pelastua.[20]

LähteetMuokkaa

  1. Broadbent, E.H. (1931). The Pilgrim Church. Basingstoke: Pickering & Inglis. ISBN 0-7208-0677-1. 
  2. Philip Schaff: History of the Christian Church, Volume III: Nicene and Post-Nicene Christianity. A.D. 311-600 - Christian Classics Ethereal Library ccel.org.
  3. Philip Schaff: NPNF1-01. The Confessions and Letters of St. Augustine, with a Sketch of his Life and Work - Christian Classics Ethereal Library ccel.org. ”But, on the other hand, Augustin is, of all the fathers, nearest to evangelical Protestantism, and may be called, in respect of his doctrine of sin and grace, the first forerunner of the Reformation. The Lutheran and Reformed churches have ever conceded to him, without scruple, the cognomen of Saint, and claimed him as one of the most enlightened witnesses of the truth and most striking examples of the marvellous power of divine grace in the transformation of a sinner. It is worthy of mark, that his Pauline doctrines, which are most nearly 22 akin to Protestantism, are the later and more mature parts of his system, and that just these found great acceptance with the laity. The Pelagian controversy, in which he developed his anthropology, marks the culmination of his theological and ecclesiastical career, and his latest writings were directed against the Pelagian Julian and the Semi-Pelagians in Gaul, who were brought to his notice by two friendly laymen, Prosper and Hilary. These anti-Pelagian works have wrought mightily, it is most true, upon the Catholic church, and have held in check the Pelagianizing tendencies of the hierarchical and monastic system, but they have never passed into its blood and marrow. They waited for a favourable future, and nourished in silence an opposition to the prevailing system. All the Reformers in the outset, Melanchthon and Zwingle among them, adopted his denial of free will and his doctrine of predestination, and sometimes even went beyond him into the abyss of supralapsarianism, to cut out the last roots of human merit and boasting”
  4. Byzantine Empire – The age of Iconoclasm: 717–867 britannica.com. en
  5. Schildgen, Brenda Deen. "Destruction: Iconoclasm and the Reformation in Northern Europe". Heritage or Heresy: 39–56. 
  6. Raaijmakers, Janneke (2017). "Claudius. Self-styling in early medieval debate: Self-styling in early medieval debate". 
  7. Gottschalk Of Orbais | Roman Catholic theologian britannica.com. en
  8. Reformation parallels: the case of Gottschalk of Orbais doinghistoryinpublic.org. 18.7.2017. en
  9. Lockridge, Kenneth R.. "Gottschalk "Fulgentius" of Orbais". 
  10. Cathari | Christian sect britannica.com. en
  11. a b Walther, Daniel (1968). "Were the Albigenses and Waldenses Forerunners of the Reformation?". Andrews University Seminary Studies 6 (2). 
  12. a b c d Reddy, Mike Megrove (2017). "The forms of communication employed by the Protestant Reformers and especially Luther and Calvin". Pharos Journal of Theology 98. “The Pre-Reformers: All groups that spoke out against the church were regarded as "heretical" groups. In the same light, the present-day church considers those individuals that questioned the church "doctrine" and "teachings" as heretics. McCallum (2002:n.p.) states that there were eight heretical groups of pre-reformers between the 12th and 15th centuries during the various European regions. McCallum 2002:n.p. mentions them as follows:
    • Flagellants were in 1259. They marched with only loincloths through the streets crying out to God to show mercy on them (McCallum 2002:n.p.). In 1349 they were condemned.
    • Then there was a variety of lay groups known as Beguines who had no specific set of forms (McCallum, 2002;n.p.). They were followers of Lambert le Begue who was a stammerer.
    • In the 12th century Tanchelm preached in the diocese of Utrecht. He denied the author of the pope and the church and attacked the structure of the Catholic Church (McCallum, 2002:n.p.).
    • Peter of Bruys in the 12th century also rejected christening of infants. He rejected prayers for the dead, the Eucharist veneration of the cross and ecclesiastical ceremonies (McCallum, 2002:n.p.).
    • In the first half of 12th century Henry of Lausanne preached in what is known as France. His followers were known as the Henricans. The clergy were condemned for the love of wealth and power by Henry of Lausanne (McCallum, 2002:n.p.).
    • The Adamists engaged in behaviour that was socially unacceptable and indulged in the practice of nude worship.
    • Arnold of Brescia wanted the church to follow Christian ideals (McCallum 2002:n.p.). He attacked the bishops for their dishonest gains. He was hanged in 1155 and his body was burned.
    • The Pataria, in Northern Italy were in reaction to the corruption which was taking place in the church. McCallum (2002:n.p.) states that the self-indulgent practices within the Roman Catholic Church were also opposed by other smaller movements.” }}
  13. Kim, Elijah Jong Fil (2012-04-06). The Rise of the Global South: The Decline of Western Christendom and the Rise of Majority World Christianity (in en). Wipf and Stock Publishers, 201. ISBN 978-1-61097-970-2. “Peter bruys became one of the earliest leaders of the Reformation, rejecting images, infant baptism,” 
  14. Waldenses | Description, History, & Beliefs britannica.com. en
  15. Gregory Of Rimini | Italian philosopher britannica.com. en
  16. Michalski, Sergiusz (2013-01-11). Reformation and the Visual Arts: The Protestant Image Question in Western and Eastern Europe (in en). Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-92102-7. “in the middle of the fourteenth century the Strigolniki heresy broke out in Russia, chiefly in the cities in the north of the country, which gave this movement a proto-Reformation character” 
  17. Lollard | English religious history britannica.com. en
  18. Hussite | religious movement britannica.com. en
  19. Jan Hus | Biography, Reforms, Beliefs, Death, & Facts britannica.com. en
  20. a b Philip Schaff: History of the Christian Church, Volume VI: The Middle Ages. A.D. 1294-1517 - Christian Classics Ethereal Library ccel.org.
  21. Philip Schaff: History of the Christian Church, Volume VI: The Middle Ages. A.D. 1294-1517 - Christian Classics Ethereal Library ccel.org. ”John Pupper, 1400–1475, usually called John of Goch from his birthplace, a hamlet on the lower Rhine near Cleves, seems to have been trained in one of the schools of the Brothers of the Common Life, and then studied in Cologne and perhaps in Paris. He founded a house of Augustinians near Mecheln, remaining at its head till his death. His writings were not published till after the beginning of the Reformation. He anticipated that movement in asserting the supreme authority of the Bible. The Fathers are to be accepted only so far as they follow the canonical Scriptures. In contrast to the works of the philosophers and the Schoolmen, the Bible is a book of life; theirs, books of death.1167 He also called in question the merit of monastic vows and the validity of the distinction between the higher and lower morality upon which monasticism laid stress. What is included under the higher morality is within the reach of all Christians and not the property of monks only. He renounced the Catholic view of justification without stating with clearness the evangelical theory These three German theologians, Goch, Wesel and Wessel, were quietly searching after the marks of the true Church and the doctrine of justification by faith in Christ alone. Without knowing it, they were standing on the threshold of the Reformation.”
  22. Philip Schaff: History of the Christian Church, Volume VI: The Middle Ages. A.D. 1294-1517 - Christian Classics Ethereal Library ccel.org. ”John Ruchrath von Wesel, d. 1481, attacked the hierarchy and indulgences and was charged on his trial with calling in question almost all the distinctive Roman Catholic tenets. He was born in Oberwesel on the Rhine between Mainz and Coblentz. He taught at the University of Erfurt and, in 1458, was chosen its vice-rector. Luther bore testimony to his influence when he said, "I remember how Master John Wesalia ruled the University of Erfurt by his writings through the study of which I also became a master."1169 Leaving Erfurt, he was successively professor in Basel and cathedral preacher in Mainz and Worms. In 1479, Wesel was arraigned for heresy before the Inquisition at Mainz.1170 Among the charges were that the Scriptures are alone a trustworthy source of authority; the names of the predestinate are written in the book of life and cannot be erased by a priestly ban; indulgences do not profit; Christ is not pleased with festivals of fasting, pilgrimages or priestly celibacy; Christ’s body can be in the bread without any change of the bread’s substance: pope and councils are not to be obeyed if they are out of accord with the Scriptures; he whom God chooses will be saved irrespective of pope and priests, and all who have faith will enjoy as much blessedness as prelates. Wesel also made the distinction between the visible and the invisible Church and defined the Church as the aggregation of all the faithful who are bound together by love—collectio omnium fidelium caritate copulatorum. In his trial, he was accused of having had communication with the Hussites. In matters of historical criticism, he was also in advance of his age, casting doubt upon some of the statements of the Athanasian Creed, abandoning the application of the term Catholic to the Apostles’ Creed and pronouncing the addition of the filioque clause—and from the Son—unwarranted. The doctrines of indulgences and the fund of merit he pronounced unscriptural and pious frauds. The elect are saved wholly through the grace of God—sola Dei gratia salvantur electi. These three German theologians, Goch, Wesel and Wessel, were quietly searching after the marks of the true Church and the doctrine of justification by faith in Christ alone. Without knowing it, they were standing on the threshold of the Reformation.”
  23. "[http://www.pharosjot.com/uploads/7/1/6/3/7163688/article_25_vol_98_2017.pdf The forms of communication employed by the Protestant Reformers and especially Luther and Calvin]" (2016). Pharos Journal of Theology 98. “John of Wessel was one member in the group who attacked indulgences (Reddy 2004:115). The doctrine of justification by faith alone was the teaching of John of Wessel (Kuiper 1982:151). He rejected the doctrine of transubstantiation where it is believed when the priest pronounces the sacraments then the wine and bread in turned into the real body and blood of Christ” 
  24. How did Savonarola influence the Reformation and Counter-Reformation – DailyHistory.org dailyhistory.org.